Afterwards also on the color

CanaryThe Canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), also Canary, southern German and Austrian Kanari, rarely also Canary cock or Harzer Roller, for yellow-plumaged beautiful-singing species, comes from the canary (Serinus canaria) from. The Canary Canary inhabits the Atlantic archipelagos of the Canary Islands and the Azores, as well as the island of Madeira. It lives mainly on seeds and plant parts and in the breeding season also on insects. Over the course of more than 500 years, man has domesticated this songbird into a domestic pet. In the course of domestication, the song of the canary was also changed, which earned him the name "singer in yellow plumage". In particular, the Harz roller represents a breeding bird known in this respect.

After that also on the color


The canary is slightly larger than its wild ancestor, the canary lark. Song and color canaries are about 13.5 cm to 14.5 cm in size. Positurkanarienvogel there are from 11 cm to 23 cm in length. The canary is characterized by a harmonious finch shape – with a round shaped head and a short conical beak.

The best known plumage color of canaries is the "canary yellow". However, today there are a variety of very different plumage colors (z. B. white, red, brown, light brown). The red color originates from the crossbreeding of the hooded siskin. Some breeds also wear a hood or have special plumage hairstyles. The flight of the canary is strikingly wavy. Corresponds to the flight pattern of finches.


The canary is the only subspecies of the canary. The next relative represents the Girlitz. Other close relatives include hooded siskin, redpoll and goldfinch.


In a close connection with the song stands the well distinctive hearing ability of the canaries. The optimal sensitivity ranges from 3200 Hertz (Hz) to 4000 Hz. The lower hearing limit is at 1100 Hz. Its upper at 10000 Hz. The canary can also distinguish tone sequences, store them in memory and play them back. Therefore, it can be the species-specific. Learn bred song. It can imitate tones and tone sequences of other birds and also integrate foreign sounds into its song.

A canary song begins with a variable, quiet entrance of a few syllables and culminates in a very loud tour of harsh descending elements. However, the wild birds lack the deep phrases, in contrast to the Harz roller, due to breeding selection. For this the Canary-Girlitz can master up to 400 elements. Thus sings more varied than the breeding forms. Nevertheless, in both cases the variety of sound units must be learned, which can be extended throughout life.

Development of the song

As soon as the canary is hatched, it makes its first sounds. After 30 to 40 days the song study of the males then begins. This first phase of learning (subsong) lasts until just before the juvenile molt. Before the beginning of the juvenile molt, the bird is silent for about two weeks. Only between the 70. and 90. Day begins in the second learning phase (plastic song), which lasts until about the 150th day. Life day lasts. After the juvenile moult, the third phase of song formation begins (juvenile autumn song), which lasts until about 250 years of age. Life day lasts. In this period the talent can already be guessed, so that the singing canary can go to the so-called singing school.

At the reproductive time of the following year, around the 300. day of life, the canary has completed its apprenticeship and reached full song, which it maintains throughout the breeding season. The phonetic repertoire is stable and usually includes 30 to 40 different individual elements (syllables, i.e. notes per second). The male sings quite long melodies built up from many tours (tour: coherent sequence of syllables, i.e. verse) or phrases (phrase: independent conclusion of a piece of music). There is little variation in the duration of the pauses: although they range from 0.02 s to 0.7 s, they are usually in the range of 0.08 s to 0.16 s. The tour duration of adult males is usually 0.8 s to 1.1 s, but can also be 2 s.

Part of the song is innate in the canary, but besides this there is also individual learning. The song pattern and the verse with certain tones and rhythm are genetically determined. However, the fine structures (syllables) are open to learning processes, and experience is gained by listening to species-specific song. The father's example is very important, but the young also learn from other males and young birds of the same age. This learning ability is particularly promoted in the singing school. Some syllables are also formed without recognizable models, so the canary can improvise.

Females rarely sing during their first year of life. The quality of their song corresponds most closely to the subsong of males, sometimes to plastic song. During the breeding season, females sing only exceptionally. After finishing their last brood, around July, they spontaneously sing the summer song. From autumn until the beginning of the next breeding season, they sing the autumn song. The female sings most in October.

After the first reproductive period is over, males sing less and less and eventually stop singing altogether (refractory period). After the annual change of plumage, the molt, it sings the fall song. This is far more plastic than full song, i.e. without a fixed temporal structure, but the individual elements are also much more variable. The pauses vary in length and the ratio of tours to syllables is strongly shifted in favor of the latter. In winter and spring the song begins to stabilize again until it reaches full song level again in the next breeding season. Interestingly, the song has now changed somewhat compared to the previous year. Some syllables have remained the same, others have been forgotten. He has created new melodies for this purpose.

Singing behavior

The male canary sings loudly and beautifully from a singing perch already in the early morning. He lets his song be heard most often in the mating season to defend his territory against conspecifics and to court a female. Sometimes the song also serves to accompany the nest-building process.

Social behavior

Canaries are diurnal animals. They leave their sleeping cast with the beginning of the day, with sunset they seek it again. In winter the activity phase starts much later and ends earlier. The activity phase is often interrupted by resting and grooming phases. Canaries are sociable birds outside the breeding season, which can be kept in the aviary as a group. Towards the breeding season the cocks form territories. Defend these often vehemently. Canaries always pay attention to an individual distance from each other, which they scrupulously maintain and defend even at night when sleeping. They communicate by calls and also singing. Do they see predators or are they attracted by noise, people (hands), birds of prey flying by o.a. frightened, they fly around in panic in the cage resp. cling to the edge of the cage.

Body language

The canary has developed a distinctive body language, which can sometimes be confused with grooming. Thus the spreading of the wings can serve on the one hand the threat opposite its conspecifics, in order to claim food, the district or a female for itself, but on the other hand also only a stretching can be, in order to cool itself down. An open beak serves either as a threat or as a means of cooling down (panting). Also the sharpening of the beak at a branch can serve on the one hand the appeasement of aggressive conspecifics, on the other hand, however, also only the cleaning of the beak.

If canaries want to show great affection, they beak with each other. If they clean themselves also still mutually, they express thereby their sympathy for each other. If a male wants to impress a female, he performs a dance. Canaries often offer their partner for grooming parts of the body, which they do not reach when grooming with the beak. As an invitation to preen, one sticks the neck, head or throat towards the other one. The partner now pulls one feather after the other through the beak at the presented position. If it touches other parts of the body, the preened bird immediately becomes restless, pecks at it or flies away. Canaries are very peaceful. Compatible birds. Nevertheless, there are disputes among them from time to time, especially over coveted food, perches or nesting material. Often the dispute is limited to mutual threatening, after which the inferior gives up. If the spreading of the wings is not enough, they peck aggressively with their beaks and sometimes chase each other. If one of the rivals surrenders, it stretches its body and puts its plumage tightly. Even if a canary is strongly frightened, it shows this humble behavior. Especially during the mating season, there are also beak fights and chases.

In the aviary it can happen that a certain canary is often chased and is not allowed to get food. He does not come to rest. May die from heart failure.


The breeding season of the canary begins in spring. Males increase singing and also engage in chase flights and beak fights. However, canaries in the house can get into breeding mood and breed at any time of the year.


For mating, the male usually sits near a branch fork. As soon as it has discovered a female, it sings in courtship flight to encourage the female to build a nest, which is followed by mating. The female often lets her trilling call be heard and flaps her wings. It is constantly on the move. If the female is in a breeding mood, she takes nest-building material in her beak and looks for a suitable nest site (nest-building ceremonial). Mating lasts one to two seconds. After mating, the birds separate. Usually preen themselves extensively.

Nest building and egg laying

After that also on the color

The female builds the nest in nest bases in the form of baskets or half-open nest boxes. To build a nest, canaries use all the materials offered by the bird keeper. Materials from nature are suitable (blades of grass, moss, animal hair, wool, feathers, etc.).) or nest-building materials specially designed for ornamental birds, such as coconut fiber, wood wool (for the nest base) and Scharpie (for lining the nest). During nest building the male sings persistently and feeds.

As soon as the female has completed her nest, she lays the first egg, almost always in the early morning. Usually the hen rises while squeezing out the egg. Stands with open beak in the nest. Afterwards it sits down exhausted and rests. The clutch is complete with three to five eggs. The eggs are pale sea green. Show reddish-brown spots on the blunt pole. The abundant supply of food allows canaries to lay and breed more than twice a year. However, this will put too much strain on your organism. Their health weakened. Two to three broods in one summer are common.

Domesticated canaries almost always begin breeding after the first egg is laid. This causes the young to hatch one after the other, and late hatchlings have little chance of survival, as they can be crushed and are outnumbered in the fight for food.

Breeding time

In canaries, it is common for the female to breed alone and not be relieved by the male. It leaves the nest several times a day to defecate and drink. The rest of the time the male provides the female with food from his crop. Females usually sit very firmly and persistently on the eggs and, if handled calmly, are only slightly disturbed in their brooding business. The incubation period lasts 13 to 14 days, depending on the brooding experience of the hen. With an inexperienced hen it can possibly take longer than with an experienced one, because she does not sit yet so firmly on the eggs.

In well-harmonized couples, all canary eggs are usually fertilized. After about 6 days, the embryo of fertilized eggs can be seen as a dark spot, if the egg is held against the light of an incandescent lamp or flashlight. Unfertilized eggs are clear and transparent.

Development of the boys

After that also on the color

On the day of hatching, the young live on the yolk sac, they are hunted by the female and fed only the next day. In the first days of life of the young, the male takes over the food procurement and gives the food from his crop to the female. The female chokes out this lining from the crop. Feed the young with the double presoaked food porridge. In this phase the young birds need additional animal protein. The female keeps the nest clean by eating the feces of her children. After four to five days, the male already feeds the young directly with the food brought in. After about a week the boys lift themselves up. Deposit their droppings on the edge of the nest. After the 14. After the first day of life, the flight instinct is stimulated, so that in case of imminent danger, the young ones can jump out of the nest in fright and injure themselves. On 16. day, the young leave the nest, but will be up to 30. day still fed by their parents. Often the male cares for the young alone and teaches them to forage and eat on their own. Meanwhile, the female begins with the second brood.

After three to four months, the now independent young birds have completed the juvenile molt, in which only the small feathers are replaced without wing and tail feathers, and are sexually mature. The life expectancy of the canary is 6 to 10 years. The record is 34 years.

History of domestication

Afterwards also on the color

Whether the indigenous people of the Canary Islands kept the Canary Island Canary as a caged bird is likely because of its beautiful song, but controversial. Since the conquest of the Canary Islands in 1496, the Spaniards brought the Canary-Girlitz to Europe. Since they liked sweets, they were also called "sugar birds". Because of their singing and cheerfulness, they quickly gained great popularity and became a symbol of luxury and sophistication. Due to increasing demand, they had to be shipped in large quantities. Since the monasteries expected large revenues from the trade in canaries, the monks began breeding canaries. Here especially the monastery of Cadiz showed great successes. In order to maintain their monopoly, the Spaniards sold only the males, which were extremely popular with the ladies of the nobility and wealthy citizens because of their beautiful song. Spain sold the canaries to Portugal, England, France and Italy. Around 1550, however, the Italians came into possession of canary females and started their own breeding. The monopoly of the Spaniards collapsed.

Around 1600 canaries were also started to be bred in the Kingdom of England. Queen Elizabeth I. was enthusiastic about the canaries and hired servants for the care and breeding of these small birds. The British already attached great importance to the external appearance at that time. Around 1650, the first crested canary was bred in England, and around 1700, the first frise and pose canary was bred. When craftsmen and workers could afford canaries, breeding took on professional features.

Towards the end of the 16. At the beginning of the 20th century canary breeding was also practiced in France. The French paid special attention to the coloration.

Before 1600, the first mutations occurred in breeding. At first there were yellow spots in the plumage, which were soon bred to pure yellow birds. The Tyrolean song canaries were also predominantly yellow. In 1667 pure white canaries were reported in Germany. Before that there were paintings of white pied canaries. Gray, gray pied and brown canaries were also mentioned in books of the 17th century. and 18. Mentioned at the end of the nineteenth century. In this time also the agate birds, which were mentioned for the first time in Holland, fall. The mutations of the white, gray and agate birds disappeared again, because at that time the rules of inheritance were not yet known.

Already around 1600 the Tyroleans bred the canaries and after a few years they founded a breeding and trading center. Soon they had yellow. White canaries were bred. In addition, they came up with the idea of using nightingales as precentors for the young cocks. A company was founded in Imst am Inn for shipment all over the world. The Tyrolean bird traders traveled throughout Europe with back frames on which canaries were carried in small wooden cages. Around 1700 the canaries reached Germany and the Netherlands via Tyrol. Innsbruck, Nuremberg and Augsburg are mentioned as trading centers. By the end of the 16. At the end of the 17th century only song canaries were bred. After that also the color. Lastly put emphasis on the posture. The heyday of canary breeding was the 18th century. Century. At the beginning of the 19th century. In the middle of the 19th century the breeding started in the Harz Mountains, because many Tyroleans emigrated there due to higher wages. Here they concentrated on the song. Improved the singing qualities. Thus, the Harz scooter became world famous within a relatively short time. From 1842 canaries were exported from the Harz Mountains to the USA. By 1860, sales had already risen to 15.000 per year. In 1882 120.000 canaries transported to New York. Towards the end of the 19. At the end of the 16th century the Harz breeding reached its peak: more than one million Harz rollers were exported.

Canaries also served as a gas warning system for the miners of the Harz Mountains.

Only at the beginning of the 20. At the end of the nineteenth century the breeding of color canaries became popular. The mutations that had become extinct at that time reappeared and others were added. With the knowledge of inheritance mechanisms (Mendel's rules) it was no longer difficult to consolidate the mutations that had occurred and to build stable breeding strains.

Probably the greatest event in color canary breeding was the realization of the red canary through the crossbreeding of the hooded siskin. However, it was a long way to stabilize the red, as only a small percentage of male hybrids of canary and hooded siskin were fertile. In the period between 1915 and 1925, some German breeders – especially Bruno Matern, who lived in East Prussia – managed to consolidate the red canaries. Even though the most important impulses for the breeding of color canaries were given in Germany, this breeding was done much more diligently in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Only towards the end of the 20. At the beginning of the twentieth century breeders began to create new breeds and to standardize known breeds. For example, dwarf forms of some breeds began to be bred in the 1980s. Great progress is made in canary breeding, so that some breeds are so consolidated in their genetic material and are recognized internationally. Also, new breeds from distant countries are discovered almost every year.


Canaries can be housed together in an aviary during the resting phase outside the breeding season. A canary is not a typical flock bird like, for example, the budgerigar.


Afterwards also on the color

Canaries are bred either for song, for song and color, or for color only, or for posture.

While German canary breeding focused on the refinement of vocal qualities, English breeders concentrated on the breeding of canaries as early as the 18th century. In the 19th century on the breeding of canaries with other shape. On the European mainland, in addition to breeding song canaries, people were engaged in breeding birds of different colors. Thus the three large breeding directions song, color and posture developed.

Song canaries

After that also on the color

In the song breeding, the canary song known today was developed by constant selection from the song of the wild canary. After the song was divided into different parts (tours), the “German standard scale” was fixed in Kassel in 1922, in which value divisions and point allocations are fixed. In 1959, the song was divided into two tour groups, the value tours and the false tours. The nine value tours – hollow roll, gnarl, water tour, hollow bell, shockel, whistle, cluck, bell and bell roll – are scored in three levels depending on the variation performed, timbre, range, euphony and purity. The recognition and correct classification of the tours requires years of experience and expertise in breeding.

The canary song is not constant, but is subject to constant changes. Besides the bird's talent, it is also influenced by the environment, i.e. season, age, mood and cage location. Whereas the simple sounds (decoy, warning and threatening sounds) are innate to the birds, they must first learn the complicated, sonorous songs. However, these are also co-determined by genetic predispositions.

Song canaries are specially trained to sing. About the age of six months they are brought to the so-called “singing school” to live there alone for a few weeks in a small cage, the so-called “song builder”. It prevents them from being distracted and stops territorial fights in the beginning of sexual maturity. During this time they only hear their conspecifics, but do not see them. A good precentor, called “professor” in Belgium, serves as a role model for the young canaries. After they have learned several stanzas, more are added. Canaries are able to learn new verses all their life, which they do not forget again.

The Harzer Roller, also called Edelroller, was developed in the 19. It was bred in the Upper Harz in the nineteenth century, but nowadays it is also bred in other places. The “rolling” song – a certain melody – helped the canary with the yellow, green, yellow-green pied, white or recently also red plumage to fame. The Harz Roller sings very pleasantly melodic, varied and apparently with closed beak.

The Belgian Water Striker is slightly larger than the Harz Roller and pale yellow in color. The song of this breed is more “beating” in contrast to the rolling, soft song of the German bird.

The Spanish Timbrado is similar in appearance to the wild Canary-Girlitz. Its song reminds of a bright bell ringing.

The American Singer was bred in the USA in an attempt to combine the advantages of all breeds. The American sings beautifully, has bright colors and soft feathers as well as good posture.

The Russian Canary was bred from canaries sold by German traders to the Russian Tsar's court. Its song is no longer reminiscent of the canary we know, but sounds more like the beating of a great tit. Russian championships are held annually in Moscow by the local club. In the western countries this breed is still largely unknown.

Color canaries

After that also on the color

At present, more than 400 colors are recognized in the breeding organizations.

The color of the canaries is composed of three essential components: The basic color goes from yellow to fire red or white. The yellow and red of canaries is formed from carotenoids (also called lipochromes or fat color). For this purpose provitamins A or ready carotenoids are taken up with the food. Depending on the genetic condition of the canary, these carotenoids or provitamins A are converted to endogenous carotenoids (the lipochromes) or used directly for feather coloration. Lipochromes are deposited in the feather keratin. Are thus firmly anchored in the feather. The yellow to red basic color can be weakened pastel-like by a mutation (Ivoor factor).

Birds that are genetically unable to build up and convert the carotenoids offered in the diet remain fat colorless, i.e. white. There are birds which do not convert any carotenoids and are therefore completely white (recessive-white), and birds which have a too slow lipochrome formation and the genetically still existing factors for red or yellow are no longer effective, apart from minor color deposits in the large plumage (dominant-white).

The second component, the melanin color includes all dark color components, such as black or brown. They derive solely from the melanins, the eumelanins and phaeomelanins. These are deposited in the feather and cause the canaries' characteristic markings – a dark stripe or streak on the upper side of the body. A multitude of melanin mutations changes the hue of the melanin and partly also the markings.

A special feature of the color canaries are the so-called Inos (Albinos – white, lutinos – yellow, Rubinos – red) dar. Inos are sog. Phaeos of the agate or. Isabell series, d. h. of the diluted classical melanin colors. In these colors melanins are no longer visible. The eyes of all Inos are red, because there are no more melanins there either. However, the term albino is misleading, because the melanin loss is not due to a genetic defect, as in the case of albinos of other animal species, but the albino appearance of the canaries is actually only feigned.

The third component is the so-called feather structure. Here one distinguishes between intensive, mold and mosaic. With the intense feather structure, the carotenoids penetrate to the tip of the feathers, so that the birds show the fat colors much more vividly than the birds with a moldy structure. The feathers of the “mold-birds” have a narrow colorless. So that white appearing) feather edge. They look like covered with mold, because the basic color is not as bright as in the “intensive birds”. The “mosaic birds” shall show the basic color only on five parts of the body – head, breast, rump and the two wing bars. The rest of the plumage should be chalky white. Male mosaic birds have larger colored areas than female specimens.

The plumage of canaries always contains one of the primary colors yellow, red or white and a plumage structure: intense, mold or mosaic. “Melanin birds” have besides the basic color. The feather structure additionally a melanin pattern. The basic color and the melanin coloration can be influenced by further additional color factors (optical blue factor, citron factor, Ivoor factor, lipochrome density factor, . ) are changed in appearance.

All color strokes [1] can be divided into two groups:

1. “brightened” show one of the basic colors and one of the feather structures, but no melanin markings. 2. “Melanin canaries” show one of the basic colors, one of the feather structures and additionally melanin colors. The classic melanin colors are black, agate, brown and Isabell. These colors can occur in the following expressions (non-classical melanin colors): Pastel, Graywing, Onyx, Opal, Topaz, Eumo, Cobalt, Satinet, Phaeo, Jaspe [2], and Amethyst.

– Since “Satinet” and “Phaeo” are currently only bred in brown resp. Amethyst” and “Jaspe” are not yet approved by the breeders' organizations as a show class; – In the case of white canaries, there is no mention of the plumage structure, but only whether the color is inherited dominantly or recessively.

Positur canaries

This form of breeding continues to this day and is practiced not only in England, but now throughout the world. The breeding of new posture birds continues up to the present time, like the relatively young breeds Fiorino, Makige, Rheinlander, Mehringer etc. show. At present there are 29 recognized breeds of posy birds, which in turn are divided into different colorings.

By the names of the Positur birds one recognizes the origin, since they are derived from the regions, in which they were bred. The "Great Ghent'se Bird", which was already bred around 1600 in the Flemish coastal areas of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands, is the progenitor of many, especially the English posy birds.

All the curved posture birds probably go back to the Bo Belge with typical Belgian character, which has its origin in the "Great Ghent Bird" and is considered an independent breed from about 1800 onwards.

The origin of the coiffed posture birds lies in the Rococo period (1720-1780). The playful shapes represented a fashion in this period, which has an effect up to today's breeding. In 1758 a canary with "downy feathers" is mentioned for the first time, the description of which referred to the plumage structure. Nowadays these feathers are called curls or coiffure feathers. The origin of all coiffed posture birds is the Parisian trumpeter, which was not bred in Paris, but in the Dutch-Belgian provinces. Since the "Great Ghent'se Bird" was widespread in this area at that time, it can be amed that it was also involved in the breeding of the coiffed breeds.

At the beginning of the 20. The curved, coiffed breeds were bred for the first time at the end of the nineteenth century. Their progenitors probably represent the coiffed (Parisian trumpeters). The bent (Bo Belge) pedigree breeds represent.

In the case of the positur canaries, the breeders put emphasis on the shape (positur) first of all. The color of the birds is in contrast to the color breedings with most Positurkanarien secondary. Therefore, in this area of breeding, you can also find pied canaries. The positur canaries are divided into:

Small smooth posure birds– German hood – German positra breed with hood; all canary color strokes are admitted except pied – Gloster Fancy – English positra breed with hood (corona); the smooth-headed partner is called "Consort" – Fife Fancy – English positra breed – Border Fancy – English positra breed – Raza Espanola – Spanish positra breed – Lizard – English positra breed with distinctive pattern – Harlequin – hood canary breed under development

– Norwich – English Positur breed – Crested – English Positur breed with hood; the smooth-headed partner is called "Crestbred" – Bernese – Swiss Positur breed – Lancashire – English Positur breed with hood (Coppy); the smooth-headed partner is called "Plainhead" – Yorkshire – English Positur breed – Llarget Espanol – Spanish Positur breed

– Japan Hoso – Japanese figure breed – Rhinelander – German figure breed – Munich – German figure breed – Scotch – Scottish figure breed – Bo Belge – Belgian figure breed

After that also on the color

Frise canaries– Nordhollander – Dutch Frise breed – Fiorino – Italian Frise breed with hood – Mehringer – German Frise breed – Paduaner – Italian Frise breed – Parisian Trumpeter – French Frise breed – AGI (Arigante Gigante Italiano) – Italian Frise breed

– Zuid-Holland – Dutch/Belgian/French figure frise breed – Gibber Italicus – Italian figure frise breed – Swiss Frise – Swiss figure frise breed – Makige – Japanese figure frise breed – Giboso Espanol – Spanish figure frise breed – Melado Tinerfeno – Spanish figure frise breed


After the end of the breeding season, exhibitions are usually held every autumn and generally begin in October and November. There are many canary exhibitions all over the world. The world exhibition (C.O.M.) is kept every year in Europe and attracts thousands of breeders. More than 20.000 birds, including canaries, are brought to the competition.

At bird shows, breeders exchange knowledge about the inheritance of characteristics and compare offspring among themselves and with the standards specified for the individual breeds. Furthermore, they exhibit their own results of the current breeding year. Have them evaluated by judges trained to do so. The canaries are exhibited either as singing, color or posture canaries. For clear identification they wear anklets with a ribbon number on the legs, which indicate the year of birth and the breeder. It is exhibited in standardized cages individually or as a so-called collection (consisting of four birds).

Color breeds are judged primarily on plumage coloration, although shape and size are also judging criteria. In the case of posture birds, on the other hand, it is mainly the body shape and posture that are judged. In each case a maximum of 100 points can be awarded. At some exhibitions prizes can be won.

The following evaluation criteria apply to color canaries:

Melanin: With dark birds here the color and form of the melanin marking and coloring are evaluated.

After that was also on the color

For the evaluation of the individual pose breeds other evaluation criteria are used. As an example Evaluation positions of a Parisian trumpeter:

Supporting feather, mantle, breast coiffure: The main styles of the bird (flank, back and chest) are evaluated here. Plumage: This is where plumage quality is scored. Size: The size of a Paris trumpeter should be at least 19 cm. attitude: The attitude in the exhibition cage is evaluated here. The bird should sit upright and not flutter back and forth. head: Here is where the head hairstyles are judged. Cock feathers: Some posture breeds must show longer feathers sticking out right and left at the base of the tail. Wings: They should be long, closed and close-fitting. Tail: It should be long and wide, but closed. Legs: Matching the bird. Corkscrew claws, as was common in the past, the birds may show, but they do not have to have them. Neck: Here the neck hairstyles are evaluated. Overall impression: Here the individual positions are considered again. Additionally, the cleanliness of the cage is evaluated.

Uses in art and culture

Georg Philipp Telemann's Canary Cantata from 1737 is a funeral music for a deceased songbird. Carl Zeller's operetta The bird dealer tells from the time of the Tyrolean canary breeding in the 18. Century. In the Children death songs by Friedrich Ruckert, one line reads "The canary atones".

Wilhelm Busch shows in the drawing Monsieur Jacques à Paris during the siege in 1870 (1870) in the Flying Leaves (1859-1871) a man with his canary. The Belgian painter Luc Tuymans has brought together a canary and a flower pot as a motif in one of his works. Johann Aldabert Angermeyer also places it in the painting Flower still life with canary into a similar context. Zdenka Brock devotes herself to the animal in the abstract picture "Our canary sings so beautifully". Leif Trenkler has in his meter long whimsical picture Hyde Park with red canary captured the complexity of electronic pop music. New York dadaist Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven used her body as a canvas and shocked the public when she wore, for example, a brassiere made of tomato soup cans with a birdcage containing a canary dangling from it, and mounted a glowing light bulb on her buttocks. In 1732, the Meissen Porcelain Manufactory created a design for a yellow canary, which was executed between 1947 and 1954. 1795. This one is killed by a hawk. Reawakened together with the beloved by the self-sacrifice of the snake. This one is killed by a hawk. Together with the beloved by the self-sacrifice of the snake resurrected. In Wilhelm Hey's fables The Canary and The canary and the hen this bird is the center of attention. In Michael Ende's book Momo and the film version of the same name, the title character makes a silenced (yellow) canary sing by patiently listening to it. In the children's book The blue hat and the yellow canary by Martin Ebbertz, the title character is a talking stuffed animal. In Michel Houellebecq's novel Elementary Particles When the adult Michel Djerzinski returns home, he finds his canary, with whom he has had a closer relationship than with any human being, dead in its cage.

S. Aden wrote (under the pseudonym S. from Adelung) Peep the Canary, Purr the Kitten, and Little Mariechen, a colorful picture book with funny rhymes. Peter Schossow describes in his picture book Is this how it belongs. The story of Elvis how a child deals with the death of his canary. Antje Reetz wrote the children's book A canary sings again.

The plays The dumb canary and The cat and the canary, whereby the latter was filmed, carry this bird symbolically in the title. In the film The cock is dead Rosemarie, the main character, holds a canary in her hands. In the middle of the 20. Nineteenth-century cartoons showed domestic cats chasing canaries, with Warner Brothers' Sylvester and Tweety had the greatest success.

Norwich City, an English soccer club, is also known as The Canaries known, so that a yellow canary on a green background adorns the club's coat of arms as a mascot. The reason is that Norwich used to be a famous breeding and trading center of these birds, and these breeding animals were the former pet of the city's weavers' guild.

Fenerbahce Istanbul, the Turkish soccer record champion, is also known as the Sari Kanarya (yellow canary) are known. Among fans and in the press this name is also often used. The reason for this is probably the yellow coloration of the birds. The club colors of Fenerbahce Istanbul are yellow and navy blue, with the color yellow clearly dominating.

The Norwegian soccer club Lillestrøm SK is known as Kanarifuglene known. The club colors are accordingly predominantly yellow (with black). The supporters club of LSK is called Kanari-Fansen.


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