diseases of the lungs are among the most frequent reasons for a visit to the doctor. The spectrum ranges from infectious bronchitis to tuberculosis and lung cancer.
With the exception of the latter, pulmonary diseases fall under the purview of the Pulmonary medicine (pneumology, pulmology). In the following, I would like to explain briefly the most important diseases of the lungs.
The most important facts at a glance!
1. The lungs are important for the gas exchange of the body. Therefore, in many cases, diseases lead to a reduced oxygen supply. 2. The large volume of air breathed per day ensures that infectious diseases rank first among lung diseases. 3. Likewise, inhaled toxins or allergens lead to lung disease. 4. First among lung diseases is bronchitis, which is usually harmless. 5. Among the most important causes of numerous diseases of the lungs is smoking. It leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.
How does it come to diseases of the lungs?
The two lungs are two extremely fragile structures whose parenchymal tie consists of numerous small vesicles, the alveoli, on the inside. Their wall is wafer-thin and allows the Gas exchange with the small Blood capillaries. These alveoli are the end pieces of numerous branches of the trachea in bronchi and Bronchioli. Interaction of the blood vessels. air carrying particles.
We inhale about half a liter of air per breath, at least twelve times a minute. During the day, this amounts to a good 10.000 liters – with everything inside. Therefore make Infectious diseases a considerable part of the lung diseases. Also lead inhaled toxins to diseases, first and foremost Cigarette smoke.
The respiratory movements of ribs and diaphragm stretch the lungs when inhaled. When exhaling, they contract due to their elasticity. For this airtight seal of the lung lobes in the thorax necessary for them to move smoothly.
Allergic diseases of the lungs
The immune system is always on the alert in the lungs, in case pathogens should penetrate. Sometimes, however, it exaggerates its reaction to invading substances. It results in allergic lung disease. These include above all allergies to animal hair, house dust mites or a Pollen allergy in the form of the Hay fever. If left untreated, these allergic reactions lead to coughing fits, shortness of breath or asthma.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is one of the most common hereditary diseases in Europe. It is thus about as common as diabetes mellitus type 1. Due to genetic changes, the liver does not produce enough of the enzyme alpha-1-antitrypsin. In the consequence it comes to liver and lung diseases. The enzyme deficiency is little known, but is suspected of causing, one of the most common causes of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and COPD to be.
Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract that occurs in attacks and leads to typical symptoms such as difficult breathing with shortness of breath, coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Complaint-free periods alternate with symptomatic periods and acute asthma attacks.
is the term for pathological dilatation of the bronchial tubes that occurs congenitally or as a result of chronic lung diseases. Its cause is often unknown. They lead to coughing with mucous or purulent sputum, susceptibility to infection and difficult breathing.
or cough is one of the most common diseases of the lungs. Caused by respiratory infections in which the pathogens spread to the mucous membranes and lead to severe coughing with sputum and chest pain.
In bacterial infections, the sputum is often greenish-yellowish, in advanced stages also bloody. Bronchitis is often accompanied by other signs of a cold, such as rhinitis, fever, headache, aching limbs and fatigue. If left untreated, acute bronchitis can lead to chronic bronchitis become. Term for chronic obstructive bronchitis. Pulmonary hyperinflation (emphysema). Both develop slowly and over years. Typical of COPD is AHA symptoms from sputum, cough and shortness of breath. The cough is particularly pronounced in the morning after getting up, the shortness of breath occurs initially during physical exertion, later already at rest.
The main problem of COPD is chronic inflammation of the airways, slowly destroying the lung tie.