Bladder cancer (bladder carcinoma)Here you will find information about symptoms, causes and treatment of bladder cancer and bladder carcinoma.
Cancer of the urinary bladder, carcinoma of the bladder, carcinoma of the urinary bladder, bladder neoplasia
Doctors refer to bladder cancer as bladder carcinoma. In fact, there is a whole range of carcinomas of the urinary bladder.
– In 70 percent of cases, bladder tumors are discovered before they have penetrated the muscular layer of the organ. These cancerous tumors are called non-muscle-invasive tumors. – In the case of muscle-invasive tumors, the cancer has already worked its way into the muscle layer of the bladder. – In addition, bladder cancer tumors can grow out of the bladder into surrounding tie. The urinary tract and the renal pelvis are then most frequently affected.
According to the German Cancer Society (Onko-Internetportal), urinary bladder cancer has a frequency of about 16.000 new cases among common cancers. Men account for more than 75 percent of cases: they have a threefold increased risk compared to women.
In both sexes, bladder cancer is a disease of old age. At first diagnosis, women are on average 77 years old and men 74 years old.
There are no clear externally recognizable symptoms of bladder cancer. Only rarely does bladder cancer cause pain in its early stages. As a rule, abnormalities in urination such as reddish-brown discoloration of the urine, frequent urination or difficult urination lead the affected person to see a doctor. Bladder cancer can then be diagnosed primarily using imaging procedures.
Usually bladder cancer develops in the bladder mucosa. The exact causes are not known.
Smoking is considered the most important risk factor. Apparently, toxins from tobacco promote harmful changes in the genetic material through which the degenerate growth of bladder or bladder mucosa cells develops. Smoking is the main reason why bladder cancer is about three times more common in men than in women. According to studies, smokers account for up to 70 percent of new cases each year.
Other causes include chronic bladder infections, radiation exposure, and ingestion of aromatic amines such as benzidine or 2-naphthylamine. In professions such as the steel and chemical industries, dental technology and auto mechanics, bladder cancer is therefore also recognized as an occupational disease. Drug side effects are another cause of bladder cancer. This applies above all to the painkiller phenacetin as well as cancer drugs with the active ingredient cyclophosphamide.
Treatment of bladder cancer is mainly surgical. Non-muscle-invasive tumors of the bladder mucosa are usually surgically ablated. If necessary, it is followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
In the case of advanced bladder cancer, the bladder and surrounding tie (prostate, urethra, vas deferens, ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus) must be completely or partially removed. After this so-called cystectomy, the urine is drained through the abdominal wall in a urine bag. Sometimes an attempt is made to model and suture a so-called neobladder from a small intestine area. If this operation proceeds without complications and the bladder sphincter remains intact, those affected can then pass urine through the urethra as usual.
Bladder cancer is not infrequently detected earlier in men because of a slightly different course than in women buw. treats. Therefore, the 5-year survival rate of men (45 percent) is slightly higher than that of women (38 percent).