Corona in children infection symptoms course d4l

January 2022 Estimated reading time 9 min.

Corona in children infection symptoms course d4l

Children are not "little adults. Anyone who has children of their own, works with children, or encounters them regularly in everyday life knows this all too well. Especially when living with corona, this knowledge is more important than ever. Here we provide an overview of symptoms, progression and complications in children, as well as how best to manage daily life at times of corona.

1. Risk of infection in children

1.1. Frequency of infection

Children can also become infected with the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Since young children and adolescents often develop milder symptoms than adults, the risk of infection is often underestimated. This is because children are less likely to have severe preexisting conditions that place additional stress on their bodies in the event of corona infection [1].

Nevertheless, because children carry the virus, are less able to adhere to measures, and often have close contact with each other, widespread spread of the virus by and among children can occur [2, 3].

Whether a child has symptoms or not is not critical: even children with few symptoms have a similar amount of virus in their nose and throat as symptomatic adults [4].

So the bottom line remains: children can catch the virus from adults as well as from other children – even if the person themselves had no symptoms [3, 4].

1.2. Transmission from children to others

Just as children can spread the coronavirus among themselves, transmission to adults is also possible – regardless of symptoms. Studies have shown that children spread the coronavirus in institutions such as daycare centers and schools, as well as at home among relatives [4].

Nevertheless, contrary to what was amed at the beginning of the pandemic, children are not "super-spreaders", as can be the case, for example, with flu epidemics. According to this, especially in children under 14 years of age, onward transmission is possible but by no means more frequent than in adolescents or adults [5].

It has also been shown that area-wide school and day-care center closures were only of secondary importance compared to general distance and hygiene regulations [5].

In addition, consistently applied protection concepts such as the wearing of masks or clear subdivisions of individual groups in educational institutions showed effect [4].

The risk of transmission can therefore also be noticeably reduced in children with the help of measures adapted to their age [4].

1.3. Measures against infection in everyday life

One of the best measures to protect yourself and your children from infection is to make sure you have plenty of fresh air. This is because the virus can persist indoors for long periods in the form of tiny particles known as aerosols. Regular airing with windows wide open can significantly reduce the risk of infection. In this case, shock ventilation should be carried out approximately every 20 minutes [6].

How long one should carry out this "shock airing" depends on the time of year. In summer, shock ventilation should be done for 20 to 30 minutes. In winter, periods of 5 to 10 minutes of airing at a time are often sufficient. Children should wear sufficiently warm clothing. If it is possible to open several windows opposite each other at the same time, the exchange of air can of course be accelerated considerably. If many people are in a confined space at the same time, ventilation should be considered for the entire duration [7].

In schools and similar institutions, it is recommended to ventilate at every break – but in any case at least every 45 minutes. It is also advisable to ventilate during the lesson. In addition, all indoor areas should be ventilated immediately if someone repeatedly coughs or sneezes. All other measures – spacing, hygiene, and respiratory masks – work much better if adequate fresh indoor air has already been provided [8].

Of course, how well further measures can be implemented depends greatly on the age and motivation of the child. Whenever possible, therefore, care should be taken to ensure that the "AHA rules" are followed, even in the case of children. These consist of keeping a distance ("A") of at least 1.5 meters, regular hygiene measures ("H"), and wearing an everyday mask ("A") that covers the mouth and nose [4, 8].

However, especially in very young children, these measures can be difficult to implement and then require consideration. However, regular and correct hand washing with soap, thorough cleaning of frequently used surfaces, and limiting contact with others to the minimum necessary in everyday life is highly advisable and usually easy to implement [8, 9].

1.4. Measures against transmission in case of infection

Children who are infected should stay away from daycare, school or other appointments. The same is true if infection is suspected until testing has ruled it out [8, 9].

Due to the often mild or even asymptomatic course of a corona infection in children, it is often difficult to notice the disease early and to prevent transmission to others. In addition to the generally useful everyday measures such as the AHA rules and ventilation, you can pay attention to the following things [1]:

– Check daily for the symptoms listed below (for this, see 2.1) Look out. – Keep track of who a child comes into contact with on a daily basis. – Keep a diary listing all encounters in a confined space. This can make it much easier for health departments to follow chains of infection later on. – If a child's relatives or the child itself becomes ill, the school and the responsible health office must be informed immediately.

In addition, in general, contact between children and people with pre-existing conditions, especially the elderly, should always be reconsidered. As soon as there is even a slight suspicion of a possible risk of infection in the child, these encounters should be avoided at all costs [1].

2. COVID-19 progression in children

2.1. Typical symptoms

As many as one-fifth to one-third of all children have no symptoms at all in the case of a Corona infection. COVID-19 also tends to be milder in children, although severe cases do occur. Symptoms last an average of 6 days and usually disappear completely after 4 weeks at the latest [5, 10]. Similar to adults, fever counts. Cough among the most common symptoms. However, the frequency depends greatly on the age of the child [5, 10-15]:

Frequency of COVID-19 symptoms in children and adults comp.

2.2. Signs of severe infection

Most cases of coronavirus infection in children are asymptomatic or mild. Symptoms then usually resolve within 1 to 2 weeks [16].

If a severe course does occur, it is often because the child also has an underlying illness that existed prior to the infection. This may include lung disease, diabetes, existing heart defects, a weakened immune system, pre-existing genetic conditions, severe obesity, and other underlying conditions [5, 16].

Pre-existing treatment that affects the child's immune system may also be a reason for a severe course [16].

If there are clear signs of illness in a child, such as fever, cough, sore throat or ears, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or an unclear skin rash, it is essential to avoid daycare or school and contact a physician instead [5].

Symptoms such as increasing difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or. -Tight, confusion, extreme and unusual sleepiness, bluish lips, and severe abdominal pain may be signs of severe corona infection and are reasons to take the child to an emergency room immediately [5].

Fortunately, severe courses and deaths from corona infection in children are extremely rare [5, 16].

2.3. Delta variant in children

It is now known from analysis that with the prevalence of the delta variant (B.1.617.2) the number of infected children requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19 has increased [10].

This may be due to a greater spread and transmissibility of this viral mutation. It is currently uncertain whether the delta variant also leads to severe courses in children as is the case with Pregnant women has already been shown [10].

2. COVID-19 complications in children are extremely rare. Form the absolute exception. On the one hand, this includes a pronounced pneumonia, which – similar to adults – may require ventilation in the course [5, 10].

Another exceedingly rare complication is the so-called "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" or "MIS-C" for short. This is an overreaction of the immune system with fever and organ involvement 2 to 6 weeks after infection [5, 10].

However, probably the most common late consequence of corona infection in children is Long COVID. However, as a completely new clinical picture, further research is needed here in order to be able to make more precise statements in the future [5, 10].

A summary of the evidence base to date on Long COVID in children can be found here.

However, the fact that more and more children are being given the opportunity to be vaccinated against COVID-19 is extremely good news that will further reduce the risk for children in the future. For parents who are still ambivalent offers following article a mental starting point [17|.

It may also be helpful to look more closely at the psychological stresses on children during the corona pandemic. You can find more information about this Here.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: