Coronary heart disease. The risks of infarction.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common heart diseases in the world.
This disease of the coronary vessels or coronary arteries is caused by vascular aging processes (arteriosclerosis). The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen-rich blood by these arteries, which arise directly behind the aortic valve from the main artery (aorta).
Arteriosclerosis causes deposits of cholesterol- and calcium-containing plaques in the walls of the blood vessels, which can lead to narrowing of the vessels (stenoses) or even complete blockage. Complete vascular occlusion results in most cases in a heart attack. Symptoms occur relatively late, when the narrowing of the bloodstream has progressed so far that the blood supply to the heart muscle is critically impaired.
Keep an eye on risk factors for a heart attack and treat them!
– high blood prere (arterial hypertension) – elevated cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) – obesity – diabetes – lack of exercise
Other risk factors such as z.B. male gender, age or genetic predisposition, d.h. accumulation of heart diseases in the family, cannot be influenced by treatment.
Respond immediately to symptoms of myocardial infarction!
– Chest tightness – dull feeling of prere, z.T. with radiation to the left arm, lower jaw or back (so called. angina pectoris) or – shortness of breath (dyspnea)
typically occur increased under physical exertion and become better at rest/recovery. In the case of a heart attack, however, these symptoms can also occur suddenly at rest and no longer improve. In this case it is essential to. Immediately call an emergency physician at 112.
Elevation infarction and non-elevation infarction always call for cardiac catheterization
Chronic CHD is often stable, d.h. angina can occur Pectoris symptoms exist in everyday life (z.B. Chest tightness when going uphill) but which are constant and do not worsen. In this case, it usually remains with the conservative, d.h. drug treatment.
Acute coronary syndrome must be differentiated from stable CAD. In this case, acute symptoms of CHD occur, such as.B. new-onset or increasing angina pectoris, the at the slightest exertion or even at rest occurs (unstable angina pectoris). Acute myocardial infarction, which is usually characterized by severe symptoms at rest that do not go away on their own, belongs to the generic term acute coronary syndrome. In this case, the emergency doctor must be informed immediately (telephone 112). The patient is then taken for further diagnostics. treatment transported to a chest pain unit (CPU). If ECG changes are already present in the admission ECG, one speaks of a ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Immediate cardiac catheterization is required to reopen the occluded coronary artery by stent implantation. Read more information about the implantation of stents in Bethanien Hospital and Markus Hospital here.
If the blood values of the rapid test taken in the CPU show a damage of the heart muscle, but the ECG is not very conspicuous, one speaks of an encephalitis NSTEMI (non-ST elevation myocardial infarction). Urgent catheter examination with stent implantation is also indicated for this NSTEMI.