ComplicationsDiabetes mellitus type 2 can lead to serious complications. Especially if it is not treated adequately. Typical complications of diabetes include damage to the retinas of the eyes, foot complications, and kidney and heart damage.
Non-specific vascular damage (macroangiopathy)
Diabetes mellitus can cause non-specific pathological changes in the vessels. Especially if the blood sugar is not well adjusted. Excessively high blood glucose levels that persist over a long period of time, as well as elevated blood prere, obesity and lipid metabolism disorders, favor the development of such damage. %p.no-well
Arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries (coronary heart disease) with the risk of heart attack
Arteriosclerosis of the aorta and blood vessels in the legs with the risk of rupture of the aorta or smoker's leg (peripheral arterial occlusive disease)
Arteriosclerosis of the blood vessels of the brain with the risk of stroke (arterial occlusive disease of the cerebral arteries and ischemic cerebral infarction)
Specific diabetic vascular damage (microangiopathy)
Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic-specific pathological changes in the blood vessels. Especially if blood sugar is not well controlled. Excessive blood glucose level, which lasts for a long time, leads to the deposition of sugar. It mainly affects the walls of capillary vessels; pathological thickening occurs.
Damage to the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) with the risk of restriction or failure of kidney function; this necessitates regular blood washing on dialysis
Damage to the retina of the eye (diabetic retinopathy) with the risk of reduced vision and even blindness; diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of blindness in 40- to 80-year-olds; 25% of type 2 diabetics have such retinal changes after 15 years
Damage to the nerves (diabetic neuropathy) with sensory disturbances in the limbs and possible organ dysfunction, for example, in the heart, stomach and/or reproductive organs
Damage to the feet (diabetic foot syndrome) with skin lesions, tie destruction and risk of need for amputation
Diseases of the heart muscle tie (diabetic cardiomyopathy)Damaged heart muscle tie
Diseases of the heart muscle tie (diabetic cardiomyopathy)
Diabetes mellitus type 2 can damage the heart muscle tie.
In addition to arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries (coronary heart disease) and high blood prere, diabetes mellitus is thus another underlying disease that can promote the development of heart pump weakness (cardiac insufficiency).
Decreased immune defense
Diabetes mellitus damages the immune system. This can lead to an increase in infections. Skin infections with bacteria or fungi often occur. Simple infections, for example during a cold, can be more protracted and severe in patients with diabetes mellitus. Also common are urinary tract infections.
Disturbances in fat metabolism and fatty liver
Diabetes mellitus also disturbs the body's lipid metabolism. The level of protective fats, such as HDL cholesterol, falls. The level of harmful blood fats, such as triglycerides, increases. Excessive storage of fat in the liver tie, which may limit liver function.
Mouth and gum problems
Diabetics have a higher risk of developing periodontal disease (periodontitis). In parallel, inflammations of the oral mucosa, painful tears in the corner of the mouth (mouth corner rhagades) and wound healing disorders after dental treatment can occur. A precursor is gingivitis, which is also more common in diabetics.
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, which requires immediate medical treatment. It can occur due to a too high blood sugar level. Blood glucose levels can be elevated more than ten times the norm in this case. This leads to severe hyperacidity of the blood (metabolic acidosis).
Triggers of diabetic coma are often infections, dietary errors or a wrong or forgotten dosage of insulin. Diabetic coma can lead to inadequate blood supply throughout the body, which can damage organs (volume deficiency, shock). In particular, acute kidney failure as well as failure of the stomach and intestinal function can quickly occur. If warning signs of diabetic coma are noted, get medical help immediately.
flaccid muscles, weakness and accelerated breathing
loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain
Increased thirst and urination
Signs of physical dehydration, for example on the skin and tongue, with a tendency to faint
state of shock due to too low blood glucose level
Hypoglycemia (hypoglycemic shock) often occurs in diabetes because insulin or diabetes medication has been overdosed in relation to the amount of food consumed. So, for example, if insulin was injected but food was forgotten. Besides it can be caused by strong physical load, Alcohol consumption or an interaction with antihypertensive drugs can lead to a severe drop in blood glucose.
In contrast to diabetic coma, hypoglycemic shock develops very rapidly. It leads initially to ravenous appetite, trembling, increased muscle tension and moist skin. In extreme cases, sudden loss of consciousness may also occur in the further course of the disease.