Diabetes – a serious but easily treatable disease
More and more people around the world are suffering from diabetes, increasingly including children. According to the World Health Organization, the reason for this is often poor diet and lack of exercise. What diabetes is all about, how it can be prevented and how it can be treated properly, you can find out here.
diabetes has become one of the most widespread diseases. In Austria alone, there are currently about 800.000 people affected, more and more frequently also younger people. Across Europe, there are an estimated 32 million adults, and around 463 million people worldwide, living with diabetes – and the trend is still rising. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the worldwide prevalence of diabetes has reached 9.3%: this means that every eleventh person is affected! The common thing about it: More than half of those with the disease have not yet been diagnosed, does not know about their disease. In Austria, about 20% are not (yet) aware of their disease.
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Diabetes, in fact Diabetes mellitus, also diabetes called insulin, is a Metabolic disease, in which the blood sugar cannot be metabolized properly. So sugar stays in the blood instead of going into the cells where it belongs. The consequence is a too high blood sugar level.
To understand: sugar in the form of Glucose (glucose) is one of the most important sources of energy for our body. Above all our Brain, but also other vital organs are dependent on this Energy, which is derived from glucose. Normally, the body transports the sugar from the blood into the body cells with the help of Insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas is. To explain this mechanism, people like to use the image of a key that opens a lock. Insulin therefore opens the door to the body cell so that it can be supplied with glucose. If the hormone insulin is absent, sugar does not enter the cell. This is referred to as diabetes mellitus.
What forms of diabetes are there, and what are the differences?
The disease is divided into 3, sometimes 4 types, where Type 2 is the best known and by far the most common type of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases is.
Type 1 diabetes (ca. 5 % of diabetes cases):
This form often occurs in childhood and adolescence and was therefore previously also Juvenile diabetes referred to as. In this type, there is a disturbance of the body's own immune system, so type 1 diabetes is strictly speaking the consequence of a Autoimmune disease: The body destroys its own insulin-producing cells. At some point, there are no more insulin-producing cells, so there is no more insulin. In type 1 diabetes Insulin must therefore ALWAYS be supplied from the outside. The causes of this disorder remain unexplained, infections and genetic predisposition are under discussion.
type 2 diabetes (more than 90% of diabetes cases):
In contrast to type 1 diabetes, sufficient insulin is produced, but the cells respond less and less to insulin – they become insulin-dependent "insulin resistant". As a result, the sugar that is in the blood no longer reaches the cells. The cause of this disease is usually unhealthy lifestyle, in particular Obesity, poor diet, smoking and lack of exercise seen as main risk factors.
In the past, type 2 diabetes was considered to be Adult-onset diabetes designates. But with increasing obesity and lack of exercise among children and adolescents, the frequency of diagnosis is also rising steadily in this age group.
Gestational diabetes and other specific forms of diabetes (less than 5 % of diabetes cases):
The cause of gestational diabetes or. Pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones increase blood glucose levels. Often also reduce the secretion of insulin. Pregnancy hormones increase blood sugar levels. Often also reduce the secretion of insulin. pregnant women's "fault. Healthy. Balanced diet can protect against gestational diabetes. Healthy and balanced diet can protect against gestational diabetes. If gestational diabetes is not treated, the serious consequences for the unborn child (especially developmental disorders of the lungs, a greatly increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) have.
Very rarely diabetes goes on Diseases, disorders or removal of the pancreas (e.g. after an accident). In such cases, just as with diabetes type 1, there are absolute insulin deficiency, because the body can produce no or not enough insulin. Insulin therapy is absolutely necessary here as well.
Possible consequences of diabetes
Diabetes is a serious disease that absolutely must be treated. Unfortunately, some affected people notice their disease only late. The signs of type 2 diabetes are very non-specific. Often show themselves only insidiously. Possible symptoms are frequent urination even at night, very strong thirst, fatigue, reduced performance, muscle cramps, tingling or numbness in the legs (polyneuropathy), itching, fungal infections, poorly healing wounds and deterioration of vision. If two or more of these symptoms occur, a doctor should be consulted immediately. Because diabetes, if left untreated, brings with it serious secondary and concomitant diseases, most notably cardiovascular diseases, circulatory disorders up to diabetic foot, which not infrequently ends in amputation, further Damage to the kidneys, diabetic nerve disease and diseases of the eyes up to blindness.
In Austria alone, one person dies every 50 minutes from the late effects of diabetes. These are 10.000 deaths per year, making diabetes the fifth most common cause of death. There are about 2 cases of diabetes per year.500 amputations, and about 200 people go blind each year as a late consequence.
From these figures it is clear that an early diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential for people with all types of this disease. For diabetics it is essential to control, measure and regulate their blood sugar regularly. There are now very sophisticated and easy-to-use devices and apps, which perform all these tasks. get medical advice which system is suitable for you. What can be done preventively. Doing something about type 2 diabetes to accompany therapy? 7 valuable tips!Reduce your excess weight
Overweight is one of the most important risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Especially the so-called "Belly fat", so fat that accumulates around the internal organs is particularly dangerous. A very helpful tip to lose weight is to sleep straight eat less in the evening and not to go to sleep with a full belly. This way your body can burning fat better at night.
Movement, movement, movement
Our modern lifestyles mean we move less and less. This is bad in many ways, and it also promotes the development of diabetes. Try to keep at least 30 minutes daily moderate exercise. You can z. B. Climbing stairs instead of taking the elevator, after work brisk walking or jogging walking and much more.
Nutrition plays a prominent role in type 2 diabetes. For a long time, the prevailing view in medicine was that diabetes was a disease that could not be cured, and many people still believe this today. However, we know from countless studies that the right diet can very well have a positive influence on the disease, even when it is already manifest. The most important points are: Take as much as possible Vegetable food to itself. Plants contain a number of blood sugar regulating ingredients. Try high fiber to feed, z. B. through Whole grain products, vegetables, fruit, legumes etc. and instead avoid hidden fats, such as those found in. B. in sausage, chips etc. are to be found. It goes without saying that Sugar should be used very sparingly.
Avoid too much alcohol
Why are Alcohol and diabetes not a good combination? The consumption of alcohol initially causes the blood sugar to rise rapidly due to the abundant carbohydrates it contains, but later, when the alcohol is processed in the body, it drops sharply again – because the liver, which normally releases sugar, is disturbed in its function because it has to cope with the Degradation of the toxins is busy. In the worst case Hypoglycemia.
Do you renounce at the best to the entirety on soft drinks
Soft drinks are known to contain large amounts of sugar and are – not only for people with diabetes – to be avoided. In the long term, too much sugar disrupts the hormonally controlled mechanisms responsible for regulating blood sugar levels. The connection between the consumption of soft drinks. The development of type 2 diabetes has been clearly proven (especially in young people). Change rather to water, tea, vegetable juices& Co.
Let the smoking
Apart from the fact that smoking damages blood vessels, lungs, skin, and other organs, smoking is also one of the diabetes Top risk factors. If you stop smoking, you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes by 30 to 50 percent.
Get enough sleep, rest and reduce stress
Unfortunately, it is often underestimated how important adequate sleep and rest are. Too little sleep not only affects our mood and performance, but also our metabolism. People who sleep only five to six hours a night have a two times higher risk, to suffer from diabetes. Also stress increases the blood sugar level And can make diabetes worse. Researchers suspect that prolonged overuse may even be a contributing factor to the disease. For example, subjects who suffered from burnout syndrome had a good 1.8-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes. If Stress hormones If the body releases more glucose, it also releases more sugar, because sugar is energy. So people who are often under stress are constantly driving up their blood glucose levels. Relaxation techniques such as z. B. Autogenic training – alone or in a group – are a good way to avoid stressful situations as much as possible and reduce stress.
Conclusion: The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. Fortunately, you can protect yourself relatively well from this disease with a healthy lifestyle. But even those who already have the disease can, under certain circumstances, through exercise. Appropriate diet positively influence the course of the disease.