Diabetes mellitus (diabetes)The generic term "diabetes mellitus," which can be translated as "honey-sweet flow," refers to a group of carbohydrate metabolic diseases that are due to a deficiency of insulin. Such conditions are also known as "diabetes" and "blood sugar disease" because patients have elevated blood sugar levels.
In all forms of diabetes, excessive amounts of sugar are excreted in the urine. Insulin, the most important hormone for sugar metabolism, cannot be produced in sufficient quantities by diabetics, or not at all, and therefore has to be supplied artificially. If blood glucose levels are too high, insulin injected into the blood regulates them again. Diabetics must pay very close attention to their diet in order to keep their blood glucose levels within a certain range.
Diabetes type 1 to 4
Since 1998, the different forms of diabetes are divided into four main groups. Diabetes type 1 refers to a usually absolute insulin deficiency, which is due to cell damage in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes, often referred to as "adult-onset diabetes" called hyperinsulinism, refers to various forms of relative insulin deficiency, for example due to insulin-resistant organs or increased insulin concentrations in the blood (hyperinsulinism).
The capital letters A to H are used to distinguish between other specific forms of diabetes (type 3). There is also a condition called gestational diabetes, which usually resolves completely fairly soon after birth.
Modern diabetes therapy
Diabetics must eat very consciously and always be aware of how many so-called bread units (BEs) the food they consume corresponds to in order to be able to adjust their blood glucose levels in a stable manner. The extent of the required insulin supply depends, among other things, on the concrete daily activities.
In the case of type 1 diabetes, insulin must be administered externally for the rest of the patient's life, because an effective therapy for this form of the widespread metabolic disease is not yet known. In patients with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, which often occurs in connection with overweight (obesity), a weight loss of as little as ten kilograms can lead to a normal regulation of the blood sugar balance. In many cases, drug therapy for diabetes can be avoided in this way.
Digital meters that allow blood glucose levels to be quickly recorded by scanner make it easier to manage the disease. A small sensor device is implanted in the arm for this purpose. Without these modern glucose meters, some blood must be drawn each time for measurement by a prick in the finger and analyzed with a test strip. Digital measurement by scanner is not only much less time-consuming, but also more accurate and less prone to error.
Diabetes and general health
Diabetes mellitus carries a high risk of dangerous secondary diseases. For example, blood vessels can become "sugary, This significantly increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Sight can also suffer; under unfavorable conditions, diabetes can even lead to blindness.
Furthermore, the disease carries an increased risk of kidney damage requiring regular dialysis. The nerves in the legs can be damaged to such an extent that poorly healing ulcers can occur. Dental findings of diabetics often also require special therapy. Even mild general illnesses such as colds pose potentially dangerous health risks for diabetics.
Disease Management Program (DMP) for diabetics
Participation in a disease management program for diabetics (type 2) can limit the health risks. Every few years, training should be given on how best to manage the disease so that current therapeutic developments are not missed.
5.0 of 5 stars. 12 Evaluation(s). Please click on the desired star to rate.