Doctors of antiquity already knew about the disease. They diagnosed it with a urine taste test. Hence the name diabetes mellitus, which translates as honey-sweet flow. Colloquially, the disease is known as diabetes.
Metabolic disease diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels.
415 million people worldwide have diabetes mellitus.
Forms of diabetes
Doctors mainly differentiate the disease into Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rarer forms of diabetes are grouped by physicians under type 3. The so-called gestational diabetes is finally recorded under type 4.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Type 1 diabetics usually develop the disease in childhood and adolescence. A Autoimmune reaction of the human organism leads to the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. The resulting absolute insulin deficiency prevents the human organism from transporting the sugar in the blood into the cells for energy production. Characteristic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are fatigue, itching, ravenous appetite, strong thirst and increased urination. Those affected are also more susceptible to infections.
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Type 2 diabetes is present in 95 % of all cases. It occurs predominantly in older people. This is why many people refer to diabetes as "old-age sugar". Due to increasing obesity and Lack of movement however, children and adolescents are increasingly affected. In this case the pancreas still produces sufficient insulin. However, the cells no longer absorb it. They are insensitive to insulin – there is a Insulin resistance.
Diabetes mellitus type 3
Other specific types of diabetes that develop in ways other than type 1 and type 2 diabetes are grouped under the term type 3 diabetes. It is divided into 8 subgroups according to the cause.
Diabetes mellitus type 4
In Germany, diabetic retinopathy occurs in about 4 % of all pregnancies Gestational diabetes, Type 4 diabetes mellitus. It shows up from about the 20. Week of pregnancy due to an elevated blood glucose level. After birth, the value returns to normal.
Learn more about the problem:
Consequential damages of a diabetes disease
Overview of secondary diseases
A permanently elevated blood glucose level has a negative effect on our blood vessels. Doctors call the damage to the small blood vessels diabetic microangiopathy. Damage to the large blood vessels is known to us as hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). In connection with diabetes, physicians speak of diabetic macroangiopathy.
The result is Consequential diseases How:
Vascular occlusions: Clogging of the vessels leads to circulatory disorders in the legs and feet (peripheral arterial occlusive disease, or PAOD for short). The risk of coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke is increased, especially in conjunction with elevated blood fat levels, high blood prere, nicotine consumption and obesity.
Diabetic retinopathy: If the small blood vessels are damaged over a longer period of time, the blood supply to the retina decreases. vascular changes transform the inner wall of the eyeball. Scars develop, which lead to visual disturbances. In the worst case, blindness occurs.
Diabetic nephropathy: Vascular damage around the kidneys sometimes leads to kidney failure. This makes regular artificial blood washing (dialysis) necessary.
Permanently elevated blood glucose levels not only damage blood vessels, but also cause
small nerves. In this case doctors speak of diabetic polyneuropathy. It leads to sensory disturbances, burning pain in the feet, numbness and an altered perception of temperature (cold feet). From it and in combination with vascular damage, the following clinical pictures develop:
Diabetic foot: Nerve damage and circulatory problems cause even minor injuries to develop into open, poorly healing wounds and ulcers. In the worst case, diabetic foot leads to amputation. On the one hand, there are disturbances in sexual arousal. On the other hand, erectile dysfunction.
Menstrual disorders: Nerve damage and circulatory disorders lead if necessary. to the cessation of menstruation.
How to measure your blood sugar correctly
All utensils are stored in a practical bag.
Just like the test strips, the
Blood glucose meter Sensitive to humidity. Therefore, do not store the meter in the bathroom. The sensors could be wet. The displayed reading may be falsified as a result.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
First, the doctor clarifies which diabetes disease is present. The blood glucose level can be adjusted well with the help of the therapy individually adapted to the patient. If this is successful, people affected by diabetes can live a symptom-free life and secondary diseases can be prevented. The prerequisite for a correct setting is consistent blood glucose control.
Treatment for diabetes mellitus type 1
At Type 1 diabetes there is an absolute insulin deficiency, i.e. the pancreas produces no or too little insulin. However, since insulin is essential for life, type 1 diabetics must use it lifelong injections. For this purpose, the patient Normal insulin and also insulin analogues available. They inject themselves with the active substance using Pens.
Treatment for diabetes mellitus type 2
Gymnastic exercises and a healthy diet are important factors in the fight against diabetes mellitus type 2.
People with type 2 diabetes counteract the disease by increasing their Change your lifestyle: With a balanced diet and exercise, patients achieve a normal weight and stabilize their blood glucose levels. In advanced type 2 diabetes, tablets are often helpful; sometimes doctors also use insulin injections.
For Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the treatment of a step-by-step plan underlying.
Stage 1: Often – if detected early enough – the
Change of lifestyle habits. The patient must reduce excess weight, get plenty of physical exercise, eat a balanced diet and avoid nicotine. stage 2: Giving oral antidiabetic medications helps lower blood sugar levels. The doctor often prescribes metformin for overweight patients. Normal-weight patients get
Sulfonyureas or Sulfonyurea analogues such as repaglinide. Step 3: The doctor prescribes two medications for oral administration.
Step 4: The administration of oral tablets is no longer sufficient. The diabetic must
additional insulin injections. level 5: Doctors ame a complete exhaustion of the insulin production here. A treatment takes place exclusively with insulin.
Traveling with diabetes
Many hotels offer an international buffet. Often, guests can then also resort to familiar foods.
A chronic disease like diabetes mellitus requires a certain lifestyle and treatment, such as regular blood glucose monitoring, a certain amount of food or insulin injections. In the past, many diabetics may not have traveled by air because of these conditions. Today, experts say that people affected by diabetes can certainly enjoy long-distance travel. The prerequisites are good planning of the trip and organization of the utensils, which must be ready to hand in the hand luggage.
Tips for preparing for travel
Inform yourself about typical local dishes. Use a bread unit chart to determine the
Tip: Pack snacks in your luggage
Some hotels offer an international buffet. This makes food choices easier for diabetics. Check with your hotel before you travel to see if they offer such a service. If you are unsure, take two for the initial period Snacks between meals with you, whose BE you know exactly, z. B. an apple. Whole grain cookies. an apple and whole grain cookies.
Inform the airline that you are a diabetic and therefore carry the appropriate equipment and insulin in your hand luggage. An appropriate Diabetes certificate Your doctor will ie you with. This document also lists the utensils you will need: Pens, syringes with needles, insulin, tablets, blood glucose meter, lancing device, etc.
Remember your Diabetic card.
Diabetic accessories – twice is better
It is best to clarify with your doctor before the trip which items you absolutely must pack. To be on the safe side, take all accessories in duplicate with – in the suitcase and also additionally in the hand luggage. You can never know if you will have to wait for your suitcase if it arrives a little delayed.
When traveling by air, insulin should be carried in your hand luggage
Have you thought of everything? When traveling by air, many diabetic utensils should be included in your hand luggage.
Also take double the amount of insulin with you on your trip. If you are flying, be sure to pack your insulin supply in your carry-on luggage. The temperatures in the cargo hold of the airplane are too low for insulin.
Tip for hot beach days
However, temperatures should not be too high. Therefore, remember, a small cooler to take with you on your trip. This is the best place to store your insulin on hot beach days.
Our product tip – diabetic bag with cooling element:– MYLIFE Loom Tour Duo Diabetic Bag
Bridging the time difference
When traveling to the West or. there are sometimes significant time differences in the East. Diabetics must remember that this affects insulin administration. Adjust the dose to these time differences. With small amounts of insulin, you can initially bridge well. Let your doctor advise you beforehand what you should pay attention to.
Measure blood glucose more often
Do not forget your blood glucose meter. You need it more often than at home, especially with time differences.
During the first days of vacation, you probably change your habits: You are more active, move more. Or you enjoy your vacation with long periods of relaxation. These activities are also reflected in the blood glucose level. Experts therefore recommend measuring blood glucose levels more often, especially during the first days of vacation.
Traveling with diabetes – your checklist
It is best to print out the following list and check off each item as soon as you have tucked away the appropriate utensil.
What should diabetics carry in their hand luggage when traveling??
1) Your diabetes diary
2) your diabetic card (international)
3) Your chip card of the health insurance
4) the doctor's certificate that you are diabetic
5) Insulin or. Tablets to lower blood sugar
6) Test strips for blood sugar and acetone
7) Lancing device incl. Lancets
Syringes/Pens incl. Spare needles
9) a blood glucose meter
12) 2 snacks between meals (e.g. B. Volkorn cookies, apples)
What goes in the suitcase of diabetics on trips?
1) a small cooler
2) Pens or. Syringes with needles
3) Lancing device and lancets
4) a blood glucose meter
Status from: 20.10.2021
Image source Cover: Dragana Gordic – stock.adobe.com
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