DiabetesDiabetes mellitus (diagnosis code ICD code E11 or E10) is one of the most frequent metabolic disease in industrial societies. Diabetes develops due to impaired insulin secretion by the pancreas. The disease comes in two forms: Type 1 and Type 2. Its main characteristic is that the chronic hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia), its most severe manifestation the complete insulin deficiency. In the development of diabetes, the Pancreatic hormone insulin the decisive role. This hormone controls protein as well as fat and sugar metabolism. This is why diabetics often not only have impaired sugar metabolism, but also fat and protein metabolism.
What is the difference between diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2??
Diabetes type 1 and type 2 have many similar symptoms, but differ in cause. In both forms, insulin must be administered externally.
Diabetes type 1
Diabetes type 1 is a mostly Hereditary autoimmune disease and is not influenced by external factors. Children are also affected. In Germany, there are an estimated 320.000 people with this disease. It causes the Langerhans cells (islet cells) of the pancreas to be completely destroyed by its own defense system. Thereby the body does not produce its own insulin more produce and also does not process sugar. Diabetes type 1 is relatively rare. Sufferers must inject themselves with insulin throughout their lives.
Diabetes type 2
Diabetes is type 2 is the most common variant of diabetes, more than 90% of all diabetics suffer from it. The predisposition is genetically inherited and the disease almost always develops through an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise, i.e. it is acquired. It used to be called "adult-onset diabetes" because it often appeared at an advanced age. Because of their unhealthy lifestyle nowadays more and more young people develop "adult-onset" diabetes. This is manifested by weak insulin action and simultaneous Insulin deficiency. Both symptoms can occur in many different degrees. Many type 2 diabetics are overweight or even obese. Therefore, it happens that already the preliminary stages of the disease occur together with other ailments caused by obesity.
How does diabetes mellitus manifest itself?
Carbohydrates are processed by the metabolism into different sugars. Insulin is required for these to pass from the blood into the cells. If insulin is missing, no energy can be obtained and a blood sugar congestion.
Typical Symptoms with type 2 diabetes
– frequent and strong thirst, – increased urination, as the body wants to eliminate the higher sugar content in the blood through the urine, – dry skin and itching, – fatigue, – poor performance, – visual disturbances, – weight loss and – muscle cramps.
diabetes type 2 develops over a longer period of time. Early diagnosis is often not even possible because patients feel healthy for a long time.
In type 1 diabetes, the signs appear much earlier, but do not differ much from type 2 signs. Diabetics often have a Attacked immune system, which is noticeable, for example, through poorer wound healing. They are prone to infections of the urinary tract and skin and are prone to periodontitis.
How to diagnose diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus can be detected by several methods. One of them is Blood glucose test with an empty stomach. If the value is always above 126 mg/dl (= 7 mmol/l) after several repetitions, the person concerned is in all probability suffering from diabetes. (The fasting blood glucose value of a healthy person is 5.6 mmol/l).
Possibility 2 is the Glucose tolerance test, also called glucose load test. It provides information about how well the organism can process sugar. For this purpose, the subject drinks a glass of water with 75 mg of dissolved glucose. Normally, the blood glucose level now rises rapidly. But it should also drop again quickly. If the value is still 200 mg/dl after two hours, the affected person is probably ill.
HbA1c is a component of the red blood pigment hemoglobin. sugar molecules can dock onto them. Diabetes must be amed if the value is above 6.5.
The right diet for people with diabetes
In principle, diabetics should eat a fresh and balanced diet. People feel well. A low-carbohydrate diet with lots of high-quality proteins is ideal. High-quality fats (unsaturated fatty acids). a low-carbohydrate diet with lots of high-quality proteins is ideal. High-quality fats (unsaturated fatty acids). Although it is now known that people with Diabetes type 2 can actually eat anything, the rumor still persists that they have to keep to a strict diet. Sugar avoidance is by no means necessary.
In the treatment of Diabetes type 1 Nutrition plays virtually no role. However, sufferers need to know how high the carbohydrate content of the food they eat is. From this, they determine the amount of insulin to be injected. Treatment is aimed at, lower blood glucose, blood lipid and blood prere levels into reasonable ranges over the long term.
Overweight patients should lose weight if possible to activate the metabolism and prevent long-term damage. Radical cures are not suitable. More sensible is a long-term strategy. The German Diabetes Society (DDG) has many tips on this topic.
How is diabetes treated?
Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases in the western world. Thus, there is a lot of information and recommendations for patients. Keep discomfort in check. late consequences are avoided. Typical late effects of diabetes include kidney damage, heart attack, stroke, and amputations.
As Basic treatment become Change of diet and lots of exercise recommended. The type of food has an influence on how much the blood sugar level rises after the meal. It is important to avoid blood sugar spikes after meals. Together with sufficient exercise, the values can improve so much that an initial insulin resistance can even turn into insulin tolerance. The Insulin therapy Provides for compensating for insulin deficiency with shots, pumps or pens. If a type 2 diabetic has a body mass index of more than 40 kg/m², gastric surgery may be helpful if weight cannot be controlled in any other way.
Can you cure diabetes?
For decades, the disease was thought to be incurable, but new research is making Hope for a cure. Since Diabetes type 2 Diabetes is almost always the result of an unhealthy lifestyle, but the symptoms can disappear if you lead a healthy life. Many of the carbohydrates we eat today are unnecessary and harm diabetics in particular.
A low-carbohydrate diet significantly improves the quality of life, as excess weight is reduced. This is considered the biggest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Many type 2 diabetics no longer need insulin after significant weight loss.
Type 1 diabetes is up to now still not curable. Here, however, physicians have high hopes for the Stem cell research.
rehab for diabetes
The stay in a rehabilitation clinic for diabetes aims to normalize and stabilize blood sugar levels. As specialized facilities offer Diabetes rehab clinics excellent therapy concepts. Good results are achieved especially in obese diabetic type 2 patients. You learn Skills in managing their disease, To prevent long-term consequential damage.
In such a clinic, patients can be properly adjusted even when they are freshly diagnosed. Since the disease is often accompanied by arterial hypertension, patients in rehab are usually given a Hypertension training. In the specialized clinic, they are motivated to change their lives at home as well. After a stomach operation, a stay in rehab is almost always planned, because the diabetic first has to get used to the new life with smaller portions.