Diabetes diagnostics – diabetes test at the doctorIf diabetes is not detected, this can have serious consequences. Early, consistent diabetes treatment can stop the development of organ damage. That is why early diagnosis. Treatment for diabetes is particularly important.
List of physicians for diabetes diagnostics
Prof. Dr. med. Christian Berg
Hormone Center Zurich
MEDICOVER Munich Neuroendocrinology
Dr. med. Matthias Riedl
Diabetology and nutritional medicine Hamburg
Information on diabetes diagnostics
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease whose main characteristic is elevated blood glucose levels. About 7.5 million people in Germany have diabetes – that is almost every tenth person. Two main types of diabetes occur: Type 1 diabetes and Diabetes type 2.
Type 1 diabetes can occur in children and adolescents, but also in adults. In this form of diabetes, the insulin-producing b-cells of the pancreas are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction, i.e. the patient's own immune system attacks the b-cells. The hormone insulin ensures that sugar (glucose) is absorbed from the blood into the body's cells after food intake. If too little insulin is produced, less sugar is absorbed and the blood sugar level rises.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. Over 90 percent of diabetics have type 2 diabetes. Adults in particular suffer from the disease. In this form of diabetes, the b-cells initially produce enough insulin, but the body's cells become less sensitive to it. This is called insulin resistance. In addition to a genetic predisposition, an unhealthy lifestyle is the main factor contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes: These include Overweight , high fat diet, lack of exercise, nicotine and alcohol consumption.
Why is it important to detect diabetes as early as possible?
The body can initially compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production, so that blood glucose levels remain within the normal range for a long time. Even when blood glucose levels eventually rise, symptoms are often nonspecific, so the disease often goes unnoticed in the early years.
Before the blood glucose levels rise in diabetes, however, the metabolic state is already altered. Even at this early stage of the disease, the first consequential damage can occur. A permanently elevated blood sugar level damages the organs over time. This has effects on many organ systems. Common consequences of diabetes are Vascular – and Heart disease , High blood prere and damage to the nerves, kidneys, or eyes.
How to tell if you are diabetic?
Symptoms that may indicate diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, tiredness, poor concentration and a feeling of prere in the head. Both loss of appetite and ravenous hunger occur. Deterioration of vision and skin changes can also be an indication of diabetes. Other possible complaints include potency disorders, muscle cramps, sensory disturbances, nausea, abdominal pain and susceptibility to infections. In type 1 diabetes, states of weakness may also occur. Sudden loss of consciousness can be the first sign of diabetes.
Symptoms develop gradually, especially in type 2 diabetes. It is common for patients not to notice the condition at first. Therefore, people over 45 years of age and also younger people with an increased risk of diabetes should be examined regularly.
How can diabetes be diagnosed by a doctor?
There are various ways of detecting diabetes:
Fasting blood glucose
Since blood glucose is also elevated in healthy people after eating, blood glucose is determined in an empty stomach to diagnose diabetes. The last food intake before blood sampling must be at least eight hours ago. Normally, fasting blood glucose is no more than 100 mg/dl. Fasting blood glucose is elevated at values between 100 and 126 mg/dl. Doctors then speak of prediabetes, a preliminary stage of diabetes. People with prediabetes, have an increased risk of developing diabetes. A value of 126 mg/dl or more indicates diabetes.
Glucose tolerance test
The glucose tolerance test can be used to see how much sugar can be absorbed from the blood by the body's cells. The test is particularly suitable for diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance in the case of prediabetes. For the test, the patient should have eaten a high-carbohydrate diet for at least three days. Then observe a food abstinence of 10 to 16 hours. The doctor first determines the blood sugar in a fasting state. Then the patient drinks a glucose solution. Two hours later, blood glucose is measured again. The values should be below 100 mg/dl fasting. be below 140 mg/dl after ingestion of the glucose solution. In prediabetes, the values are between 100 and 126 mg/dl fasting 140 to 200 mg/dl after taking the solution. In the case of diabetes, blood glucose levels are above 126 mg/dl and above 200 mg/dl respectively.
Diabetes urine test
If there is a lot of sugar in the blood, sugar can also be detected in the urine. From a blood glucose concentration of 160 to 180 mg/dl, sugar is excreted by the kidneys. However, the method is quite imprecise. Is therefore rarely used in practice. The HbA1c value is a long-term blood glucose value. A measure of average blood glucose concentration over the last 8 to 12 weeks. This is less than 5.7 percent in healthy people and 6.5 percent or more in people with diabetes.
Diabetes self-test: How do they work and how safe are they?
Sugar in urine is an indication of diabetes. With a simple test strip, you can check yourself if there is sugar in your urine. These self-tests are available at the pharmacy. To determine the sugar level, urine must be collected in a cup and the test strip must be dipped into it. When sugar levels are elevated, a field on the test strip changes color. However, the method is not accurate. No exact blood glucose values can be derived. An only slightly elevated blood glucose level is not detectable. The test should therefore not replace a visit to the doctor.
Test diabetes risk online
For type 2 diabetes, there are some factors that increase the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. These include a family history of diabetes, lack of exercise, a high-fat diet, smoking, alcohol, advanced age, certain medications, hormonal disorders, pregnancy, and depression.
You can also test online whether you have an increased risk of diabetes yourself. The German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrucke has developed a test for this purpose. At https://drs.dife.en/ this test can be called. With the help of questions about dietary habits, physical activity, body weight and age, the individual risk of diabetes is calculated.
If you have an increased risk of diabetes, there are some things you can do to prevent the disease. These include, above all, a healthy diet, plenty of exercise, and abstinence from smoking.