Diabetes – The two sides of diabetes
The two sides of diabetes – preventing type 2 diabetes in a targeted manner or at least keeping it well under control
Do I have to change my life now? Can I still eat sugar? Do I need medication?" – Patients who learn that they suffer from type 2 diabetes have many questions. They also want to know what caused the disease.
It is striking that there are many misconceptions about this type of diabetes: "Here, you certainly don't have to inject insulin at the beginning, nor do you have to change your entire life," reares Dr. Ulrike tree of ias PREVENT and urges at the same time to the caution: Diabetes type 2 is not harmless and can cause damage in the long term at heart, kidneys and eyes – this is to be avoided however with a Lebensstilverbesserung."As an internist, Dr. Ulrike Baum executives at the check-ups. "As a family doctor, you are more likely to see the late effects that diabetes causes. In my work at ias PREVENT, on the other hand, I have the opportunity to intervene at a very early stage – before type 2 diabetes has developed."
A latent tendency to diabetes can announce itself with an elevated fasting blood glucose, an elevated HOMA index, which reflects insulin resistance, and an elevated insulin level. If a family history of diabetes is added to this, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is significantly increased. Then it is particularly important to take countermeasures at an early stage. "We talk to check-up participants in detail about health risks such as diabetes and consider concrete measures we can take to turn the tide so that manifest type 2 diabetes does not develop in the first place."This goes beyond individual dietary advice and suggestions on how to incorporate more exercise into everyday life. "Often, the prospect of becoming chronically ill is warning enough to make lifestyle changes. I experience that especially check-up participants are very motivated and manage to say goodbye to ingrained habits."
Early detection of type 2 diabetes is so important because serious complications such as kidney failure or cardiovascular disease can be prevented.
Dr. Ulrike Baum
Diagnosis with consequences
Good thing, because you should not underestimate diabetes type 2. The consequences are severe and can literally go to the kidneys. "The permanently elevated blood glucose level can damage the fine blood vessels in the renal corpuscles – in the long term, this leads to renal insufficiency, a chronic kidney damage," continues Dr. Ulrike Baum from. "In addition, more than a third of those affected develop cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks or strokes".
But that's not all: there is a risk of retinal damage to the eye (ca. 15 percent of people with type 2 diabetes), depression (12.3 percent of sufferers) or nerve damage. The latter can cause numbness, tingling, digestive problems, cardiac arrhythmias and sexual dysfunction. A normal body weight, healthy diet and sufficient exercise help to significantly minimize the risk of type 2 diabetes. Regular preventive care is also crucial, especially since type 2 diabetes often develops without symptoms.
The most common misconceptions
Those who are overweight or obese will develop type 2 diabetes
Wrong! With overweight (BMI of 25 or more), the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is twice as high as for a person of normal weight. In obese people (BMI> 30) even triples the risk of diabetes. Not all people who are overweight develop type 2 diabetes and, conversely, not all people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Diabetics are not allowed to eat sweets
Wrong! Just as with healthy people, there is nothing to be said against the occasional indulgence in sweets if you have a healthy diet and an active lifestyle.
People with diabetes may not play sports
Wrong! Physical activity in particular helps people with diabetes reduce their body weight, improve insulin resistance in their cells, and better manage their blood sugar. Even type 1 diabetics can participate in competitive sports. Some famous athletes, such as weightlifter Matthias Steiner, have already won a gold medal this way.
Diabetes is not so bad
False! Two out of three people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke.
Diabetes develops when you eat too much sugar
Wrong! Genes, but also lifestyle, are responsible for type 2 diabetes. For example, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with obesity and a high-calorie diet. It doesn't have to be sugar. Fat also plays an important role. Lack of exercise is another factor that promotes diabetes.
People with diabetes should eat special foods for diabetics
Wrong! Neither special diabetic foods nor diet foods are particularly beneficial for people with diabetes. The same rules of a healthy diet apply to them as to people without diabetes: little fat (especially saturated and trans fatty acids), sugar and salt in moderation, lots of grain products, vegetables and fruits.
Diabetics should eat only small amounts of starchy foods
Incorrect! Important staple foods such as potatoes, unpeeled rice or muesli are very high in carbohydrates. Therefore, at first glance, they do not seem suitable for diabetics. But these foods do not raise blood sugar levels as much as sugary drinks, for example, because starchy products only raise blood sugar levels slowly. starch consists of long-chain sugars, so-called polysaccharides. The body must first break them down into individual glucose components. Only then do they enter the blood. Whole grain products, potatoes or rice also contain a lot of fiber. They also have a balancing effect on blood sugar levels.
People with diabetes are more susceptible to catching a cold and other contagious diseases
Wrong! Nevertheless, experts recommend that people with diabetes get vaccinated against influenza. Because any additional illness can make the metabolic disease more difficult to manage.
Type 2 diabetes only occurs in old people
Wrong! Fact: People with type 2 diabetes are getting younger and younger. Experts estimate that in Germany alone, 5.000 children and young people from "adult-onset diabetes affected are.
TYPE 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and is triggered by a malfunction of the body's immune system. The body's own autoantibodies destroy the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute insulin deficiency. As a result, glucose (sugar) from the blood can no longer be absorbed into the body cells and the blood glucose level rises. Symptoms often include fatigue, weight loss, increased thirst, and high urinary output.
In the case of TYPE 2 diabetes the cause of the elevated blood sugar is not a lack of insulin, but a so-called insulin resistance of the cells (v.a. muscles, liver and fat cells). Blood sugar can no longer be absorbed as a source of energy and continues to circulate in the blood. In the course of the disease, there is an increasing disturbance of the rapid secretion of insulin at mealtimes, which is necessary to normalize the blood sugar after a meal. There are often no clear warning symptoms.