Diabetes type 2 comes, for example, from a fat-. High sugar diet states. Photo: AdobeStock (c) adragan
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that mainly affects people who are overweight. Therefore, normal weight and regular physical activity are considered the top priorities to combat it, respectively. Prevent. This is absolutely necessary, because too high blood sugar has bad consequences in the long run.
What is diabetes type 2?
Diabetes can develop in different ways. Depending on the cause, a distinction is therefore made between four types of diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes, which is based on a relative insulin deficiency. – Forms of diabetes caused by changes in the genetic makeup, diseases of the pancreas, infections, exposure to certain drugs or chemicals u.a.m. are triggered. (gestational diabetes).
Regardless of the cause, any form of Diabetes mellitus to a metabolic disease that affects many processes in the organism. Depending on the type of diabetes, either the pancreas is unable to produce insulin (type 1) or the body is unable to produce the hormone to be used sufficiently (type 2).
This is because the insulin released into the blood by the pancreas normally transports glucose (dextrose) into the cells, which use the sugar for energy production. Without insulin, the cells cannot utilize the glucose and it remains in the blood. The resulting high blood sugar levels has many harmful consequences for health.
Who gets Diabetes type 2?
For the diabetes type 2 one finds still quite often the designation adult-onset diabetes or. Age-related diabetes, because it usually occurs at an older age. However, it is now developing more frequently in younger adults, adolescents and even children, so the term no longer seems appropriate. The reason for its increasing incidence at younger ages is that more and more people are already heavily overweight at a young age and take little exercise.
Is diabetes type 2 curable?
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease, which, however, can be controlled by a sensible lifestyle, especially in its early stages positively influence allows normalization of blood glucose levels without the use of drugs, at least for a while.
In the long term, with good therapeutic blood glucose control, it is possible to achieve a large degree of freedom from symptoms, slow down the course of the disease and prevent secondary damage from the disease.
Is diabetes type 2 hereditary?
A hereditary predisposition plays an important role in type 2 diabetes. Whereas probably many different genes are involved in its development in variable combinations.
A type 2 diabetes-like form of diabetes increasingly found in children and adolescents called MODY diabetes (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young = adult-onset diabetes, which occurs in adolescents) is based on changes in the genetic makeup. However, a single gene is responsible for its development in each case. But there are several of these MODY diabetes-triggering genes located on different chromosomes. This type of diabetes can initially be treated with tablets, but usually ends up as insulin-dependent diabetes.
Has one parent type 2 diabetes, the Probability for the child, also to develop one, 25 to 50 percent. If both parents are diabetic, it rises to around 60 percent. If one identical twin suffers from it, the other twin has an 80 to 100 percent risk of type 2 diabetes. Siblings of type 2 diabetics are 20 to 40 percent likely to develop the disease, and daughters and granddaughters are more likely to develop gestational diabetes. However, the decisive factor for the metabolic disorder to actually occur in the case of genetic disposition is lifestyle, for example diet.
Nutrition plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Photo: AdobeStock (c) LiliGraphie
How type 2 diabetes develops?
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin – initially sufficiently – but the hormone cannot adequately perform its task of channelling glucose into the cell interior. Because the Cells are less sensitive than normal to insulin, so that the hormone loses its effect. This condition is called Insulin resistance.
The pancreas initially responds to this by producing more insulin. However, this hyperinsulinism can hardly compensate for insulin resistance in the long term. If the amount of insulin secreted is no longer sufficient to regulate blood glucose levels, type 2 diabetes occurs.
This means that despite the production of much more insulin than in metabolically healthy individuals, type 2 diabetics develop a rise in blood sugar as a result of insulin resistance. Thus, there is a relative insulin deficiency which, however, can change into an absolute insulin deficiency under certain circumstances.
What causes Type 2 diabetes? Causes
Type 2 diabetes is caused by the interaction of several factors, where Obesity as a result of a high-fat and high-sugar diet The main cause is. Specifically excessive abdominal fat or. visceral fat around internal organs such as liver or pancreas proves to be a risk factor.
In addition, an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes is played by the Diet, not only in terms of body weight, but also. For example, it has been shown that the consumption of fruit juices increases the risk of diabetes. Eating fresh fruit – especially blueberries, grapes and apples – on the other hand, reduces it.
Further increases a Increased endogenous sugar production (gluconeogenesis) in the liver increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is controlled by the antagonist of insulin, the hormone also produced in the pancreas Glucagon, which is increasingly produced in the body's cells in response to the demand for sugar, is stimulated. Also due to stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisone.
Also diabetes in a previous pregnancy or the intake of certain Medication (z.B. dehydrating agents) increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, liver disease, infections, trauma, surgery and hormonal imbalances can promote its development.
The more successfully blood glucose levels can be normalized, the more likely it is that unpleasant and sometimes irreversible health consequences of diabetes can be prevented. The blood glucose level should therefore be below 120 mg/dl before a meal and below 200 mg/dl afterwards. Its regular monitoring by the diabetic himself has been shown to help him follow the required lifestyle modifications more sustainably.
The Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes thus consists of
– a Diabetic training
Blood glucose measurements, fasting and after meals – one Nutritional counseling and therapy a diet suitable for diabetes
– a restriction of alcohol consumption, if necessary – more regularly Exercise
– cessation of tobacco use in smokers
It aims to achieve an HbA1c value of seven percent or less.
Drug therapy for type 2 diabetes
In and of itself Taking blood glucose-lowering medication only after all necessary lifestyle changes have been exhausted. However, studies show that some antidiabetic drugs, if taken early, may reduce the development or. can delay the progression of type 2 diabetes. Such as metformin, which reduces insulin resistance.
In any case, if the targeted HbA1c value is not achieved after three to six months with lifestyle modification alone, type 2 diabetes is treated with medication using an oral antidiabetic drug. As a rule, with the biguanide Metformin, whose functional mechanism is not fully understood. If the use of this substance is prohibited, for example due to intolerance or impaired kidney function, other oral antidiabetic drugs are used.
The choice of the or. of the preparations should be a specialist, d.h. specialist in internal medicine with a focus on metabolic diseases, taking into account any other diseases and medications as well as the diabetic's life circumstances.
Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes
With an insulin pen, insulin can also be administered painlessly in type 2 diabetes. Photo: AdobeStock (c)-Orawan
If blood glucose does not move toward normal despite drug treatment, d.h. If the HbA1c is above seven percent despite a combination of oral antidiabetic drugs, insulin therapy may be necessary. Many diabetics are afraid of this. Are therefore treated with insulin too late. They don't have to be, because nowadays insulin is injected by means of lancing devices, pens similar to filling pens, i.e. painlessly.
Insulin therapy, however, also requires more frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with the aid of an Blood glucose meter. It can be combined with taking oral antidiabetic drugs. The choice of insulin preparations and type of insulin therapy is determined by the doctor according to the needs, life circumstances and any concomitant diseases of the respective diabetic patient.
short-acting insulin, which is usually injected before meals in order to influence the rise in blood glucose after food intake. long-acting insulin(Basic insulin), which is given once or twice a day to replace steady, food-independent insulin secretion. Mixed insulinsfrom short- or. long-acting insulin.
To which doctor for diabetes?
The Diabetes treatment Ideally belongs in the hands of a Diabetologists, d.h. by a specialist general practitioner or Specialist in internal medicine with emphasis on metabolic diseases (endocrinology).
The following endocrinologists in Vienna are listed on HEROLD.at is recommended by patients:
What do you learn in a diabetic training course??
Prerequisite for successful implementation of lifestyle changes and drug therapies, i.e. practical management of the disease, is appropriate training of the diabetic. In addition, his willingness to measure his blood glucose levels to manage his treatment in everyday life.
The focus of such training is on the best possible adjustment of blood glucose levels. This is the Handling blood glucose measurement and, if necessary, the Insulin therapy. Participants will learn to Carbohydrate content their to estimate the number of meals, if necessary also amount of insulin required for this purpose to calculate. The measurement used for this purpose is the so-called bread unit, whereby one bread unit (BE) corresponds to 12 grams of carbohydrate. So a thin slice of white bread, which is where the term “bread unit” comes from. Or one uses carbohydrate units (KE). One KE corresponds to 10 grams of carbohydrates. A bread unit or. Carbohydrate unit increases the blood glucose level by 30 to 40 mg/dl, depending on the type of carbohydrate (fast- or slow-acting), composition of the meal, body weight, metabolism and activities of the diabetic patient. It requires 0.5 to two units of rapid-acting insulin.
It also makes sense to join a self-help group. There you will find support in many practical matters from fellow sufferers.
Type 2 diabetes – the right diet
To prevent type 2 diabetes, a balanced diet rich in vitamins is beneficial. Photo: AdobeStock (c) anastasiafotoss
A diet low in animal fats and rapidly absorbable carbohydrates is recommended not only for the treatment but also for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Recommended a varied mixed diet. It should preferably consist of
– fresh Fruit and vegetable as a source of vitamins Whole grain products, that provides fiber Sea fishing like salmon or tuna vegetable oils as z.B. Olive oil – only a little animal products such as meat or sausage
and be adapted to the personal calorie requirement. In addition, enough Fluid intake very important. It is best to drink sugar-free beverages such as water or herbal teas.
Avoid or at least reduce “sugar traps” such as sodas, ready-made ice teas, fruit juices, smoothies, fruit yogurts, (salad) sauces, sparkling wine, wine, high-sugar fruits such as bananas, grapes or pineapple, canned fruits or honey. How do type 1. Type 2 diabetes? The Causes are different: Type 1 is due to an absolute insulin deficiency, because the pancreas is unable to produce the hormone. At type 2 Although sufficient insulin is produced – at least initially – the body's cells do not respond adequately to it, so that the insulin cannot properly perform its task of transporting glucose into the cells. Insulin resistance is called this reduced sensitivity of the cells to the insulin. It leads to a relative insulin deficiency.
Frequency and course
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes also differ in their frequency, the preferred age of onset, heritability, and the speed of their progression. For example, people suffer from type 2 diabetes much more often than from type 1 diabetes. Both can occur in principle at any age. But while the Type 1 diabetes tends to occur at a young age weight, there is a Type 2 diabetes often first ion advanced age.
In addition, type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over many years, while the autoimmune reactions that lead to type 1 diabetes often occur much more quickly. And type 2 diabetes is much more likely to run in families.
Type 2 diabetes: consequences and prevention
Since type 2 diabetes usually starts insidiously and shows few characteristic symptoms, it is often only detected so late that it already has late consequences.
In the case of inadequately treated, i.e.h. badly adjusted type 2 diabetes damages the too high blood sugar levels in the long run especially the blood vessels (diabetic angiopathy). On the one hand the small. This is called microangiopathy. On the other hand. This is called macroangiopathy.
Too much blood sugar aka hyperglycemia affects in the way especially the retina of the eyes (diabetic retinopathy with risk of blindness), Kidneys (diabetic nephropathy with risk of kidney failure) and Feet. Macroangiopathy also favors the occurrence of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Also the so-called vascular (vessel-related) Dementia Is said to be associated with diabetes.
Apart from that, diabetes can be a diabetic neuropathy, disorders of the peripheral nerves with z.B. reduced sensation of touch and temperature, or numbness, can occur. As a result, prere points and small injuries go unnoticed, resulting in wounds that often heal poorly due to reduced blood flow. Often on the feet (“diabetic foot"). Injuries that cannot be controlled therapeutically can lead to amputation of toes, feet or more. However, all these complications can, with appropriate treatment, lead to. Regular medical check-ups or. Screening largely preventable. Because the occurrence of secondary diseases depends on the metabolic setting. The better it is, the later and less frequently serious health problems occur.
What protects against type 2 diabetes?
A high vitamin D level halves the risk of type 2 diabetes. Photo: AdobeStock (c) irissca
Especially Normal weight and regular exercise Are effective in preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Sensible are also Blood glucose controls. From the age of 45. The better it is, the later and rarer serious health problems occur, e.g., if there is an increased risk of diabetes in childhood, obesity, gestational diabetes, etc. – even earlier.
A high vitamin D level halves the risk of diabetes, a number of studies show.
Also, the risk of diabetes for women is reduced by about 15 percent with each year of breastfeeding. An effect that lasts for several years after weaning.