The eye diseases of humans at a glanceThere are a variety of diseases in the eye, which are often based on many different causes. Inflammations, injuries and changes with age can change and damage the eye. Here is a selection of the most common diseases of the eye.
Below you will find the most common eye diseases sorted by:
Eye diseases that often occur in older age
Inflammations and infections in and around the eye
Ocular disorders secondary to other underlying diseases
Tumors and anomalies in and around the eye
Eye diseases due to nerve damage
Disorders of the visual faculty
Misalignments of the eyes
Eye diseases that often occur in older age
glaucoma / glaucoma
The Glaucoma is less a specific disease but more a Generic term for a range of diseases associated with typical damage to the optic nerve papilla and visual field. Damage to the optic nerve head and retina can occur, resulting in visual field loss and, in extreme cases, blindness of the eye. The therapy here depends on the cause. Underlying disease. However, if symptoms occur in the eye, further clarification should be made by an Ophthalmologist should be consulted. For more information on this topic, see: Glaucoma
The Cataract generally refers to any form of Lens opacity. in an advanced cataract a gray haze can be seen behind the pupil. Due to the clouding of the lens, it becomes opaque to light and the slow deterioration of vision occurs Decrease of the visual acuity to the complete blindness as well as to the deterioration of visual acuity (visual acuity). The Main symptom of a cataract is the increasingly weakening vision. The causes are very diverse. When the lens opacity caused by cataracts worsens significantly and severely limits normal vision, a Surgery the only treatment option.
For more information see our topic: Cataract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
It is placed in a dry age-related macular degeneration (85%) and a wet form (15%) differentiated. Causes of AMD are not yet exactly clarified. Mostly the affected persons notice with a macular degeneration gray shadows in the central field of vision, so exactly where they look. Visual acuity is very impaired, often to such an extent that it is hardly possible to read anymore. For the dry form of age-related macular degeneration no established therapy exists. Better treatment options are known for the moist form, for example Laser surgery and surgical rotation. Magnifying vision aids (magnifying glasses, magnifying glasses, screen readers) are used to alleviate the symptoms, which are manifested in an increasing deterioration of visual performance.
For more information on the topic, see: Macular degeneration
inflammations and infections in and around the eye
Barley stye (hordeolum)
The stye is a purulent inflammation of the eye eyelid glands. It can appear on the inner side of the eyelid as inflammation of Sebaceous glands (the so-called. Meibomian glands) can occur or on the outside as an inflammation of sweat glands (Moll glands) or sebaceous glands (Zeis glands). Nodules on the eyelid margin. treatment with antibiotic ointment. Heat treatment by red light irradiation. It is treated with antibiotic ointment. Heat treatment by red light irradiation. For more information, see our topic: Barleycorn
In the case of the hailstone it is a Inflammation of sebaceous glands of the inner side of the eyelid (so-called. Meibomian glands) due to congestion of secretion. It is unlike the stye not painful. The impairments are mostly of a purely cosmetic nature: The hailstone is visible as a nodular distension of the eyelid, which can reach a considerable size. It is treated surgically by piercing. Clearance of the secretion masses.
For further information please see our topic: Hailstone
In the Inflammation of the conjunctiva is one of the most common diseases of the eye. The eye itches, is red and releases secretions. It can be triggered u.a. by bacteria, viruses, an allergy or external stimuli such as z.B. dry air. Depending on the cause it can infectious be or not. Leading symptoms are often a red eye, swelling, secretion and sometimes pain. As a Conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) can be triggered by several causes, there are also different treatment approaches. One should be cautious with self-treatment without consulting a doctor.
For more information on this topic, see: Conjunctivitis
The Trachoma is a deterioration of visual acuity caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, chronically progressing conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis), which often leads to blindness. It usually manifests itself within 5-7 days with a weeping conjunctivitis with foreign body sensation. Go to Therapy of the trachoma, systemic or local intracellular antibiotics are applied. For further clarification a doctor should be consulted.
You can find more information on this topic under: Trachoma
Ocular herpes refers to an infection of the eye with Herpes viruses. Different structures of the eye can be affected (nerves, cornea, etc.).). In addition to ocular herpes, the herpes simplex viruses often cause herpes simplex keratitis, i.e. corneal inflammation caused by herpes. Main symptoms are often a reddening of the eyes, a foreign body feeling and strong burning and itching. The treatment is carried out by means of eye ointments and/or eye drops. Before treatment, however, a doctor should be consulted.
For more information, see: Ocular Herpes
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Uveitis is an inflammation of the middle skin of the eye (uvea). Whether one suffers from Uveitis The symptoms of uveitis can be recognized by the fact that the eye is very red, there is stabbing pain, the eye is watery, the vision is blurred, the pupil is constricted and bright light aggravates the symptoms. Possible triggers for the inflammation of the uvea are Bacteria, Viruses or Fungi. In order to prevent permanent damage, the inflammation should be quickly and effectively relieved by an ophthalmology specialist. Mostly the anti-inflammatory drug cortisone is used for this purpose.
For more information on this topic, see: Uveitis
The symptoms of eyelid inflammation can vary significantly depending on the area affected. The Eyes may itch and watering, However, in severe cases it can also massive pain and an increasing Loss of vision come. Under the term "Stye" are different causes an eye inflammation summarized (see above). Another cause of eyelid inflammation is a Lacrimation dar. The therapy depends on the cause of the eyelid inflammation. Can therefore differ significantly from case to case.
Read more about this topic under: Eyelid inflammation
Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
Inflammation of the lacrimal gland usually affects the entire eye, since the tear fluid it produces supplies important structures throughout the eye. The inflammation of the lacrimal gland can have different causes. Most often, the acute form of inflammation is caused by bacterial pathogens causes. But also certain viruses can lead to lacrimal gland inflammation. Lacrimal gland inflammation usually occurs unilaterally. It manifests itself in the fact that the patient has a reddened and swollen eye has, which is very sensitive to prere. The treatment of optic neuritis always depends on the cause of the disease. Warm, preferably sterile compresses on the eye can help the inflammation to subside more quickly.
Read more about this topic at: Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
Inflammation of the optic nerve
The inflammation of the optic nerve is called neuritis nervi optici. Many underlying diseases can lead to inflammation of the optic nerve. The most common cause (about 20-30% of cases) is autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). First of all, the inflammation of the optic nerve leads to a Loss of visual acuity. If the progression is slow, it is usually not noticed immediately by the patient. Mostly, however, it comes suddenly, i.e. in the course of a few hours (to sometimes even days) to central visual field defects. Mostly, an inflammation of the optic nerve shows an spontaneous healing and the visual acuity improves again by itself. However, the underlying disease should still be recognized in order to treat it.
For more information on this topic, see: inflammation of the optic nerve
inflammation of the iris
With the Iritis it is a Inflammation of the iris. It is often associated with Inflammation of other parts of the middle eye skin (uvea), which is then referred to in its entirety as uveitis (see above). A distinction is made between two pathways of development the iritis. On the one hand, there are iritides that are preceded by a non-inflammatory cause on the other hand inflammatory diseases occur as part of the immune response after infections. Often the eyes are reddened, very sensitive to light and can pain. In addition, it comes to an Visual impairment. The causal Treatment of iritis can have different approaches, since there are many different causes for it.
For more information, see: Inflammation of the iris
Inflammation of the cornea
An inflammation of the cornea is also called keratitis. The cornea often presents as clouded dar. In addition watering the eyes and pain strongly. Mostly they are additionally Reddened. The eye can light-sensitive are. There are many different causes of Keratitis. Thereby infectious and non-infectious Causes distinguished. In case of any suspicion, a ophthalmologist should be consulted, otherwise the Vision permanently impaired can become. The therapy depends on the cause. Can be done with different eye drops.
For more information on this topic, see: inflammation of the cornea
Eye diseases caused by toxoplasmosis
The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is the parasite Toxoplasma Gondii. 30-80% of the population becomes infected with this bacterium during their lifetime, although in healthy individuals the disease often progresses without clinical symptoms. The disease can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. At the eye the infection manifests itself by an inflammation of the posterior segments of the eye. In technical language one speaks of posterior uveitis. It can lead to severe vision loss.
Here you can find more information: Toxoplasmosis
Eye diseases as a result of other underlying diseases
eye diseases in diabetes
Typical eye diseases in diabetes are diabetic retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy) and that macular edema. The diseases are a consequence of the vascular changes of the small vessels in the context of diabetes. one speaks of a microangiopathy. This causes long-term damage to the retina or macula, the site of sharpest vision. In the course of the disease, this leads to a steady loss of vision. Affected are about 25% of the patients suffering from diabetes.
For more information, see: Diabetic retinopathy or macular edema
The diabetic retinopathy represents a change of the retina, which occurs in diabetics over the years. The vessels of the Retina calcification, new vessels can form which grow into structures of the eye and thus severely endanger vision. Depending on the stage, deposits, vascular neoplasms or even retinal detachment and hemorrhages develop. The affected persons see blurred and blurred. The therapy is difficult, depending on the cause it can be done by laser or surgery. There is no drug therapy.
Read more on this topic at: diabetic retinopathy
endocrine orbitopathy is a disease that can Eyes together with its eye sockets (the so-called Orbita) affects. The majority of patients who suffer from Endocrine Orbitopathy suffer from this symptom in the context of a Thyroid dysfunction from. The eyes of the affected patient emerge from their orbit and the upper eyelids appear raised upwards, so that the Eyes unnaturally large and wide open Appear. The fact that it is still not possible for the medical profession to determine the Endocrine Orbitopathy The difficulty in finding a causal therapy is due not least to the fact that the exact exact causes of the disease have not yet been fully investigated.
Read more about this topic at: Endocrine orbitopathy
The Sjogren's syndrome Uveitis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system is activated. a. against salivary and lacrimal glands Directed. Sjogren's syndrome causes dry eyes, dry mucous membranes in the mouth, nose and throat as well as joint problems. The treatment is still difficult because of the unclear causality.
Read more about this topic at: Sjorgen syndrome
At Xanthelasma are yellowish plaques, which are caused by lipid deposits in the upper and lower eyelid. They are harmless, in no case contagious and also not hereditary, although they may run in families. In older people this often happens without a cause, in younger people underlying diseases have to be excluded. Xanthelasma can be recognized as yellowish pads. If desired, excise the affected areas of skin.
Read more on this topic at: Xanthelasma
Rheumatic eye diseases
In rheumatic disease, in principle, all structures of the eye can be affected by inflammatory processes. One speaks of a uveitis. Affected patients typically complain of burning eyes, a foreign body sensation, a reddened eye, stabbing pain and increased sensitivity to glare. As a complication of a rheumatic disease, a Macular edema (swelling of the macula, the site of sharpest vision) or a Cataract (cataract, clouding of the eye lens) occur. In acute cases, rheumatoid eye diseases are treated with eye drops containing cortisone and, if necessary, also with mydriatics. This is a pupil-dilating drug that is intended to prevent the iris and the iris from sticking together. In the case of frequent inflammations, there is a risk that the cortisone will cause clouding of the eye lens. Therefore, in this case, a so-called immunomodulating therapy with methotrexate or cyclosporin A should be started, whereby a suppression of the immune response takes place. A special form of rheumatoid diseases is the Sjogren's syndrome. This is an autoimmune disease that belongs to the group of collagenoses. In this disease, a change in the tear and salivary glands takes place, which is why dry eyes and a dry mouth occur. Affected are mainly women after menopause. The disease is treated with artificial tears and saliva. Eye drops containing cortisone or cyclosporin A can also be used.