Strength training serves to build muscle. Some use it to improve their athletic performance, others use it to work on their appearance. Above all, strength training makes the body more efficient and helps with diseases such as back problems, joint problems, diabetes or heart disease. Read here what forms of strength training there are, what tips there are for strength training and how you can benefit most from them.
Tips for strength training
For beginners as well as advanced users, the following applies to strength training: it is important that you always perform the exercises cleanly and without evasive movements. How to avoid injuries. The best way to get into any new muscle workout is under the guidance of an experienced trainer. Together with the trainer you will also create a suitable training plan, which is individually tailored to their skills and row.
Create a training plan
For your training plan, first determine your maximum capacity – for each individual exercise. When training, it is not fully exploited, but only aimed at a certain percentage. If someone can bench press a maximum of 70 kilograms, the 50 percent load for this athlete is a weight of 35 kilograms.
How much of the maximum load is called up during training depends on how fit the athlete is and what training goals they are aiming for.
Strength training for beginners
Strength training for beginners should be in just that range, at 50 percent of maximum strength. You should do at least five sets of each exercise. One set corresponds to one run with a certain number of repetitions in strength training. You should do 10 to 15 repetitions per machine and exercise as a strength training beginner. Pause in between for two minutes at a time.
Strength training for advanced users
For advanced users, the principle of complex strength development applies: Optimally, you should train at 70 to 85 percent of your individual maximum strength. Three to six sets of five to ten repetitions each for your strength training is ideal. The pause between sets should be one to two minutes long.
Strength training – how often to train?
Two to three workouts per week are enough to have an uplifting effect. To only maintain fitness, it is enough to flex your muscles once a week.
Strength training – what is behind it
But: What is strength training actually? The aim of strength training is to build up muscles. This happens when the body is exposed to a force load to which it adapts. To be better prepared for future efforts, strengthen muscles.
How the strength training works is controlled by the load. It depends on two factors:
– the weight to be lifted, – and how often the particular exercise is repeated.
If you want to train your muscle endurance, lift less weight, but with more repetitions. If you want to increase muscle strength and girth, train with heavier weights and fewer repetitions.
You can train your strength in many different ways. In the past, for example, the so-called bodybuilding by means of dumbbells was in demand. Mostly it was about growing impressive muscle packs. Meanwhile, many athletes prefer stationary equipment in the gym. With them the different muscle parts can be trained very specifically. Exercises that use the patient's own body weight for strength training (bodyweight training) are also becoming increasingly popular.
Strength training – the equipment
Basically, for strength training, you need (non-slip) sturdy shoes and body-hugging sportswear that cannot get caught in the equipment or slide up with your body weight during training. For floor exercises, a gym mat increases comfort. When training with weights, fingerless gloves with non-slip palms can also improve grip and protect sensitive skin from blisters.
If you don't want to train only with your own body weight, you can vary your strength training with different accessories. Exercises are used, for example:
– Dumbbells – Rope – Kettlebells (weight ball with handle) – Sandbag – Pull-up bar
In most gyms, it is also customary to bring a towel. For hygienic reasons, it is placed under the heart during machine training.
Forms of strength training
Depending on the goals you want to achieve, you train in different ways:
Maximum strength training (gain the greatest possible strength) Speed strength training (develop as much acceleration strength as possible in the shortest amount of time) Strength endurance (Ability to sustain power output for a long time)
In addition, there are various forms of muscle work used in training:
Concentric strength training: Concentric exercises involve overcoming resistance, for example lifting a weight. This shortens the muscle. Eccentric strength training: Eccentric strength exercises counteract resistance. This involves, for example, slowly lowering a weight. The muscle stretches.
Isometric strength training: Isometric strength exercises involve holding weights in one position. Thus the tension in the muscle.
Strength training – this is what it brings
Strength training increases the efficiency of the muscles. It increases strength, endurance mobility and resilience in everyday life.
Maximum Strength: The maximum force a muscle can exert increases with strength training. How to lift heavier loads. But it also benefits your athletic performance: as your maximum strength improves, so does your quick strength.
With targeted training, maximum strength can be increased by 0.5 to 2 percent per training session. Within eight weeks, two training sessions result in a total increase in strength of 8 to 32 percent.
Strength endurance: The strength endurance of the muscles benefits from the training even a little more. It is between 1.7 and 2.2 percent per training session. With more strength endurance, one then tires more slowly. This can be felt, for example, when climbing stairs.
The more untrained a person is, the faster their performance improves. This is especially true for seniors, who quickly benefit from strength training.
Strength training& Calorie consumption
How many calories you actually burn during strength training depends on various factors:
– Heaviness of the weights used – body measurements and weight of the person exercising
– Power level – number of repetitions – frequency of strength training
An athlete weighing 60 kilograms consumes around 200 kilocalories in 30 minutes through strength training. For a 90-pound athlete, it's about 300 kilocalories. But losing weight is not just about the workout itself. In addition comes the so-called afterburn effect. Muscles also burn more energy than fatty tie, even in resting phases.
Strength training for health
Many do strength training to shape their body. But strength training has a firm place above all in health sports.
Skeleton and joints benefit in particular: the muscle load also sets stimuli that promote the build-up of bone and cartilage substance. Since muscles burn more energy than other ties at rest, strength training increases the basal metabolic rate of energy. It also has a positive effect on sugar metabolism and blood prere.
Overall, the risk of various health problems decreases, including in particular
– Back problems – Overweight – Diabetes – Cardiovascular problems – Joint problems – Osteoporosis
For whom is strength training suitable?
The sport has long since outgrown its "pumping cave" status. The days when bulky guys in sleeveless shirts used heavy weights to swell their muscles to the maximum are gone. Effective strength training today includes many forms. Recommended for (almost) everyone.
Experts generally recommend strength training once or twice a week – in addition to endurance training. Strength stimuli make the body resilient and stable. Atrophied musculature, on the other hand, promotes various health problems. Only those who have to work hard at their job anyway can safely do without it. But few are.
However, some people benefit particularly from regular strength training:
Seniors and the physically weak: Muscle training knows no age. Strength training for seniors and physically weakened people can significantly improve the quality of life again. Through strength training, you gain independence, new opportunities open up for you again. For them, the risk of falls and other accidents also decreases. Overall strength training increases life expectancy.
Overweight: Losing weight through strength training or with endurance plus strength training is a good strategy. According to studies, the musculature has a great influence on the production of hormones. hormone-like messenger substances such as interleukin (IL)-6. Among other things, this hormone influences fat oxidation in the muscles. Strength training for weight loss is also suitable because muscles increase the basal metabolic rate.
cardio training: For a long time, strength training was considered risky for heart patients. But in fact they can benefit. This is especially true for patients with coronary heart disease and cardiac insufficiency. Blood prere drops. Vascular function improves. However, it is important not to overload oneself. Training is done with a low load but with more repetitions. Heart patients should clarify before training with a sports physician, how much they can expect themselves. The risk is too high for seriously ill patients, such as those with unstable angina pectoris or acute myocarditis.
Diabetics: Strength training improves glucose metabolism. The body's cells respond better to insulin again, blood sugar levels drop. This is especially true in combination with endurance sports such as jogging.
Back pain sufferers: Strong muscles support the spine. Not only the back muscles are important for this, but also the abdominal muscles. Strength training on equipment can also provide relief for patients with chronic back pain.
Strength training for women
The body of women contains about 25 and 35 percent muscle mass. The of men between 40 and 45 percent.
Exercises and interesting facts about strength training for women can be found in the article Strength training for women.
Strength training& Pregnancy
Strength training can make pregnancy easier for expectant mothers. Especially when back. Gently strengthen the pelvic floor. So the load of the growing belly can be balanced better. It bends your back-. prevent neck pain and incontinence.
However, pregnant women should refrain from heavy weights and hard training. Low loads are better. More repetitions. You should also avoid exercises in which the abdomen is curved forward (z. B. Sit-ups) as well as abrupt movements in general.
Strength training – mistakes you should avoid
When strength training, it is important to perform the exercises as cleanly as possible and not to overload yourself. Therefore, keep the following tips in mind.
Putting on too much weight: If you overdo it, you risk injury. Optimal for beginners is 50 percent of maximum strength.
Exercising without warming up: The body must be brought to operating temperature before strength training, otherwise the risk of muscle, tendon and ligament injuries increases.
Don't take breaks: This applies not only between the sets, but also between the individual training units. Doing strength training every day only tires you out instead of making you stronger. The muscle needs rest periods to adapt to the load. After intensive sessions should be at least 48 hours.
Start without a trainer: Particularly when training with weights, there is a risk of overloading and incorrect loading if an exercise is not performed correctly or a piece of equipment is operated incorrectly. Therefore, always have an experienced trainer show you the correct exercises to perform when strength training.
Strength training for the common cold: Even if the circulatory system is perhaps not put under as much strain as with endurance training, you should already take a break from training if you have a cold. Because (hard) training when you have a cold can further weaken the immune system, prolong the duration of the illness and, in the worst case, lead to myocarditis.
Strength training for chronic diseases: Strength training has a positive effect on the course of many chronic diseases. However, patients should discuss with a specialist what they can expect in terms of strength training.