The 5 most important eye diseases: What are they?
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From 08. until the 15. October 2019 is the annual "Week of Vision" in Germany. One more reason to focus on the important sense organ – the eye. Below we explain the 5 most important eye diseases and show you how to recognize them and how to treat them in the best possible way.
What is this? Conjunctivitis (med. Conjunctivitis) is An irritation of the conjunctiva, Caused by either a bacterial or viral infection, an allergy, or an offending foreign body in the eye.
symptoms: When conjunctivitis occurs, there is increased blood flow, which causes,
reddening of the conjunctiva. Usually it is accompanied by increased lacrimation, itching, foreign body sensation and pain.
Close contact with people who have the disease and bacteria or viruses of a conjunctivitis can transmit. But Also external stimuli, such as strong drafts or UV light can be triggers.
therapy: Because dry air is an amplifier of conjunctivitis, it makes sense to,
Using humidifiers to prevent conjunctivitis. In any case tear film substitutes help. If the irritation persists, an ophthalmologist should be consulted. This clarifies whether an allergy or infection with bacteria or. Viruses present and treats them with either anti-allergic or antibiotic eye drops.
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What is it? Glaucoma – also known as glaucoma– Is used as a collective term for ocular diseases in which there is prere damage of the optic nerve (nervus opticus), visual field loss (scotoma) and changes of the optic nerve papilla comes. Glaucoma develops gradually and unnoticed over a long period of time.
Symptoms: A glaucoma
does not show any symptoms at the beginning. Glaucoma develops insidiously and unnoticed over a long period of time – but already during this phase of the disease irreparable damage to the optic nerve and visual field loss occurs. Therefore, this disease is considered particularly insidious.
Risk factors: Strongly fluctuating blood prere values, very low blood prere, smoking, increased intraocular prere, genetic predisposition, acute diabetes mellitus,
Severe nearsightedness or farsightedness.
therapy: The central goal of cataract treatment is a permanent reduction in intraocular prere –
either by taking medication, surgical intervention or with the help of a laser.
What is the? Retinopathy diabetica (diabetic retinopathy) is a disease of the eye disease of the retina caused by diabetes mellitus. It is responsible for one in three cases of blindness in adults across Europe.
symptoms: Diabetic retinopathy is hardly noticed at first.
Premature death of the photoreceptor cells leads to a slow decline in vision.
Risk factors: Underlying disease diabetes mellitus, high blood sugar levels, high blood prere or elevated blood lipid levels
Therapy: Adjustment of the underlying disease diabetes mellitus by a specialist (diabetologist). Special therapeutic procedures, such as z. B.
certain laser operations or vitrectomy, can also mitigate or even halt the course of diabetic retinopathy.
What is the? The term macular degeneration (AMD) refers to a group of eye diseases that affect the macula lutea (also called the "yellow spot") of the eye. The disease results in the death of photoreceptors in the central area of the retina, which mediate color and sharp vision. In most cases, this is a degenerative disease that occurs at an older age.
Symptoms: Initially, macular degeneration usually progresses without noticeable visual impairments. As the disease progresses
progressive loss of vision in the central visual field which is accompanied by a decrease in contrast perception, color vision, a decreased ability to adapt, and an increase in glare sensitivity.
risk groups: Women and men
from the age of 65. year of life.
Therapy: In the
wet form of macular degeneration drugs are injected into the eye, which inhibit the vascular growth and the loss of the central visual field. In the dry variant, there is no therapy. The affected patient is therefore often dependent on aids such as magnifying glasses and co. instructed.
What is it? In retinal detachment, the sensory retina loses its connection to its support (choroid). Between the layers there is an accumulation of fluid, whereby the retina presses "into" the eyeball like a bubble.
Symptoms: First warning signs that you should definitely take seriously are
Flashes of light and black spots in the field of vision. In addition, some patients report experiencing an apparent Swarm of black spots in front of your eye or A one-sided shadow to see in your visual field.
Risk groups: Patients with previous diseases, such as
z. B. Severe nearsightedness or a cataract.
Therapy: Retinal tears or retinal holes become closed by means of a laser treatment or with the help of an icing therapy. A complete retinal detachment must be treated surgically. The focus of ophthalmic surgery is to fix the retina to its substrate and to correct the triggering factors.
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Burk, A. & Burk, R.: Ophthalmology checklist. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 6. Edition, 2018. Long, G.K.: Ophthalmology. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 6. Edition, 2019. Pleyer, U. (ed.): Inflammatory eye diseases. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1.