Breast cancer – genetic risk factorsAbout 70.000 people receive the initial diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany every year – making it the most common cancer among women. In a few cases the cause is hereditary. If a so-called risk gene is detected, measures can be taken before a possible outbreak occurs.
Cancer always starts with a change in the genetic material of a cell. Normally, these defects are detected and eliminated by the defense and repair mechanisms of the organism. When a malignant tumor develops, however, this growth control fails. The defective cell can multiply unchecked. In the process, the growth also grows into surrounding healthy tie and destroys it.
The genetic material can be damaged by external agents such as radiation. However, research has found that also Hereditary factors can play a role. Especially in the development of breast cancer this could be found. A predisposition with the breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 leads to a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer in the course of life – depending on the gene variant at about 70 percent.
However, according to the German Cancer Research Center, only very few people who develop breast cancer actually have risk genes, which is why a genetic test is not always useful. Therefore, one should follow Criteria orient:
– Three women in the family have breast cancer. – In the family, two women have been diagnosed with breast cancer, one of them was not older than 50 years at the time of diagnosis. – In the family there is a woman who has breast cancer, another has ovarian cancer. – One woman in the family has both breast cancer and ovarian cancer. – Two relatives in the family have ovarian cancer. – A woman in the family developed breast cancer in both breasts before she was older than 50. – A woman in the family has had breast cancer before the age of 35. – There is a man in the family with breast cancer, and there is another person known to have breast or ovarian cancer.
Even in people who meet one or even more of the above criteria, only about 25 percent actually have risk genes detected.
In case of suspicion only serious genetic tests
The detection is done by a simple Blood sample. The genetic test itself, however, is very time-consuming and costly, which is why it is only arranged if there are clear indications of a familial risk. It must absolutely be performed by medical professionals. Therefore, in case of suspicion, one should seek medical advice instead of resorting to dubious offers on the Internet.
If a risk gene is suspected, a blood test is performed. This should only be done on medical advice. be done by medical professionals (photo: pixabay).
Diagnosis risk gene
Should there actually be a corresponding diagnosis, the focus is on Early detection and Prevention. Depending on one's risk profile, one should weigh one's options and seek medical advice.
A six-monthly check by Palpation and Ultrasound examinations with gynecologists is useful in any case. Regular breast examinations should also be carried out Mammography be carried out. In the case of patients with a particularly high risk, the insurance will also cover Magnetic resonance imaging or Magnetic resonance mammograms recommended.
If there is an increased risk of breast cancer, a mammogram should be performed regularly (photo: unsplash).
Another measure is to have the healthy breast tie removed as a precautionary measure. If family members have already died from this disease, a recommendation can be made to undergo a so-called "screening" Mastectomy be pronounced. However, you should always get a second opinion before deciding to take such a step.
It is advantageous that this procedure is usually covered by the health insurance companies. For this, it is necessary to submit an appropriate report from a breast cancer center recommending this procedure. Also a cost estimate should not be missing. The reconstruction of the breast is also paid for by the insurance companies, as long as no further cosmetic changes are to be made. In any case you should contact your health insurer. Usually only the mammary gland tie is removed. Reconstructed immediately afterwards with an implant or autologous tie. In this case, it can be decided in advance whether the nipple should be preserved. In addition to the common method of reconstructing the breast with an implant, this can also be done with the patient's own tie. Implants can encapsulate over time and thus cause pain. There is no such risk in the case of a woman's own body tie. There is also no need to fear rejection. For this purpose, fatty tie is taken from the subcutis. However, it should be understood that this requires several operations. However, it is never necessary to go under the knife again – the fatty tie remains intact for the rest of the patient's life.