Diabetes type 1 all symptoms and consequences focus doctor search

Only about one in ten diabetics in Germany has type 1 diabetes. By which symptoms you recognize the disease. What the long-term consequences are.

Definition: What is diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes is
a form of diabetes mellitus, which affects only about one in ten diabetics. In contrast to type 2 diabetes, this is not a disease caused, for example, by obesity, but a Autoimmune disease.

In type 1 diabetics, the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or produces none at all. In Germany, about 200.000 people affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Throughout their lives, they all rely on artificial delivery of insulin from the pancreas to keep their blood glucose levels low and prevent secondary illnesses.

Because type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or adolescence, the condition is also called "juvenile diabetes". If type 1 diabetes does not occur until after the age of 35. If diabetes mellitus occurs at the age of 60, which is comparatively rare, doctors speak of "diabetes mellitus" "LADA Diabetes". The acronym stands for "latent autoimmune diabetes in adults". The name describes the fact that certain antibodies are measurable in the blood of the patients, as in type 1 diabetes, but the symptoms – not classic for type 1 – do not appear until adulthood. In most cases, those affected do not yet need to take insulin during the first period after diagnosis – which in turn is more similar to type 2 diabetes. LADA diabetes is therefore something like an intermediate form of diabetes mellitus 1 and 2. Doctors often initially incorrectly diagnose LADA diabetes as type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes: the symptoms

The symptoms are almost the same in type 1 diabetes as in type 2 diabetes:

– severe thirst – frequent urination – unwanted weight loss – fatigue – difficulty concentrating – lack of drive – muscle weakness – dizziness – nausea – dry skin – itching – frequent fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes – itching in the genital area (often caused by fungal infections) – an increased susceptibility to infections – urinary tract infections

The increased thirst and frequent urination are due to the fact that the body tries to get rid of the sugar, which cannot enter the cells without insulin, through the urine.

If left untreated, type 1 diabetics will always steer toward Hyperglycemia (Hyperglycemia; the opposite of hypoglycemia). You may experience impaired consciousness during these activities. Even diabetic coma. For those affected, this is life-threatening. Even in the long term, constantly elevated blood sugar levels are not healthy – if type 1 diabetes is not treated or not treated properly, there is a risk of secondary diseases. Type 1 diabetics treat their disease with insulin. The blood glucose level drops too far under excessive amounts of the hormone. In such hypoglycemia, affected persons begin to sweat, have palpitations, a pale complexion, shaky hands and knees, as well as ravenous appetite and headaches. In extreme cases, doctors speak of hypoglycemic shock.


More to the topic you find in the current expenditure diabetes of FOCUS HEALTH.

Diabetes type 1: The causes

Type 1 diabetes is a Autoimmune disease. This means that the body's own defenses are mistakenly directed against cells in the body – in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus, against the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin.

Insulin is a hormone that circulates in the blood and transports the sugar absorbed from food into every cell of the body. If it is missing, there is too much sugar in the blood after every meal, which the body cannot utilize. In addition, the muscle cells receive too little energy, which explains the poor performance of those affected.

It is not clear why the cells of the immune system attack the pancreas in type 1 diabetes. The following Risk factors are known:

– a genetic predisposition – toxins – viral infections – too short a breastfeeding period after birth – nerve damage – other autoimmune diseases

Diabetes type 1 is probably not directly hereditary. However, certain gene constellations are associated with an increased risk, so that type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in some families.

Type 1 diabetes: How the doctor makes the diagnosis

If the primary care physician or a diabetologist suspects that a patient has type 1 diabetes, he or she will check his or her Blood and urine investigate. From the blood sample he determines the fasting blood glucose value. The long-term blood glucose value (Hba1c).

An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), for which the patient has to drink a sugar solution, shows how well the sugar metabolism is still functioning. Different blood glucose levels are critical for diagnosing type 1 diabetes.

The following values are those of a healthy person:

Diabetes mellitus is present when the
Fasting blood glucose exceeds 126 mg/dl and the blood sugar value in the glucose tolerance test two hours after drinking the sugar solution is still over 200 lies.

Type 1 diabetes: The right treatment

Type 1 diabetics cannot manage without insulin therapy. This means that they have to inject themselves with the hormone that transports the sugar into the cells and which they lack. There are various ways in which those affected can administer insulin. With the so-called Conventional insulin therapy, patients inject a precisely defined amount of insulin at specific times according to a strict therapy plan.

With conventional insulin therapy, patients do not have to recalculate the amount of insulin they need several times a day. But patients must subordinate their lives to the therapy: spontaneous snacks are taboo, as are other amounts of carbohydrates than those intended.

More contemporary and flexible than conventional insulin therapy, with its strictly regulated daily schedule, is a therapy based on the "Basic bolus principle". patients rely on different types of insulin, which have a short- or long-term effect. Long-acting insulin covers basic needs, while patients inject short-acting insulin shortly before meals. Another term for the basic bolus principle is "intensified insulin therapy".

Treatment without insulin is not an option in type 1 diabetes. However, a therapy that does not require patients to inject themselves every day is now possible with the help of a pump implanted in the skin that delivers insulin automatically.

Whichever therapy type 1 diabetics decide on together with their doctor: All patients learn how best to cope with the disease in everyday life, how to calculate and supply insulin, and what to watch out for in terms of diet and exercise in special training courses for diabetics.

Researchers from Denmark want to cure diabetes. They grow stem cells to take over insulin production in the body.

Researchers have identified at least five different forms of diabetes in adults. For patients, this means that therapy is more individualized, more precise and better protects against secondary diseases.

Type 1 diabetes: The consequences

In the case of permanently elevated blood glucose levels, as with diabetes type 2 Consequential diseases, because over time the nerve endings and finest blood vessels throughout the body become damaged. If type 1 diabetics do not consistently take care of their diabetes by injecting the right amount of insulin at the right time, they risk the following health problems:

Even the brain can be affected by type 1 diabetes: Some studies suggest that if blood glucose levels are permanently too high, blood flow to the brain suffers, and with it cognitive performance.

If very high blood glucose levels occur for a short time, there is a risk of "diabetic ketoacidosis," hyperacidity of the blood, and subsequently a diabetic coma. For those affected, there is a danger to their lives.

Important to know: Consequential diseases of all kinds can be avoided if diabetes is detected early and treated consistently. Since knowledge of the disease has increased and treatment options have improved, the
Life Expectancy of people with type 1 diabetes have increased significantly. Nevertheless, in comparison, it is somewhat lower than that of the healthy population – from a purely statistical point of view.

Type 1 diabetes: dietary tips

People with diabetes may, in principle Eat everything. Nevertheless, they have to watch their diet to adjust the amount of insulin to what is on their plate. A healthy diet for type 1 diabetes includes whole grains, plenty of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils.

Foods that cause blood sugar to spike rapidly, even in healthy individuals (ex. B. sugary soft drinks), diabetics should avoid. Important to know: Unlike type 2 diabetes, however, type 1 diabetes cannot be "cured" with the help of diet. Type 1 diabetics are dependent on insulin from outside for the rest of their lives.

Even more important than healthy food is therefore sound knowledge: How many carbohydrates does a portion of pasta contain?? How will the sport affect the blood glucose level? To what extent can alcohol confuse the value? All that type 1 diabetics need to know. They learn in special training courses and at some point hardly need to look at the tables on the food packaging, because they have got a good feel for how much insulin which meal requires.

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