Diabetes, a widespread diseaseMany people struggle with diabetes mellitus, often called diabetes – according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), one in 11 adults worldwide suffers from the disease and one in two people with diabetes is not even diagnosed yet. In total, about 415 million people around the world suffer from this disease, and the numbers are rising. For example, the IDF predicts that there will be 642 million people with diabetes by 2040.
Although so many people are affected, the risk of diabetes is often underestimated. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge about the disease. To find out what causes diabetes, how to recognize the first signs of the disease and how diabetes can be treated, click here.
Diabetes type 1
This is a malfunction of the body triggered by the autoimmune system, in which the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are attacked and destroyed. The hormone insulin is very important for the body. It brings the sugar ingested through food into the cells, where it is needed for energy production. If the body can no longer produce insulin itself, there is a rise in blood glucose levels.
The first signs of diabetes appear only after most of the insulin-producing cells have already been destroyed. This is why diabetes often remains undiagnosed at first. The symptoms, which then occur very suddenly, include the need to urinate frequently and the accompanying great thirst. The body first tries to eliminate the excess sugar naturally. Drying out of the skin, circulatory problems or weight loss, simultaneous weight loss and very slowly healing wounds are further signs of type 1 diabetes. This can be detected by a urine or blood test.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a malfunction of the immune system. Cell destruction occurs in the pancreas
In the long run, too high a blood glucose level can cause great damage to the body and result in secondary diseases. The missing insulin must be supplied to the body from outside. People suffering from diabetes are therefore specially adjusted to the dose they require. Can self-administer after instruction from their doctor. It is also important to measure the sugar level in the blood several times a day. For this there are Blood glucose meters, With which you can easily measure your blood glucose level yourself at home.
Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. Resistance to insulin develops
Type 2 diabetes – risk factors
While the causes of type 1 are still being researched, there are some risk factors for type 2 that may promote diabetes. For example, if close relatives suffer from diabetes, the risk of also developing diabetes is higher. Overweight, an unhealthy diet, little exercise and high blood prere are other known risk factors.
While type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own cells are destroyed, in type 2 diabetes the body's cells develop a resistance to the messenger insulin. To compensate for this, the pancreas first produces more insulin. At some point, however, the insulin-producing cells become exhausted. As a result, blood glucose levels rise. Diabetes type 2 often remains undetected for a long time. Is often diagnosed only by a secondary disease. As with type 1 diabetes, the first symptoms are frequent urination and thirst, as well as drying of the skin. However, these symptoms can also occur in a weakened form. In addition, diabetes makes the body more susceptible to infections because it weakens the immune system.
Diabetes damages nerves, organs and cells. Among the most common secondary diseases in diabetes are heart attacks and strokes, triggered by circulatory disorders. Damage to the kidneys or retina are also common problems. Nerve damage to the feet and legs often leads to amputation of the affected limb, as wounds do not heal well due to circulatory disorders. Often ulcers form there, which attack the bones. This secondary disease is known as "diabetic foot syndrome" known.
Sport and healthy diet reduce the risk!
In contrast to type 1, patients with type 2 diabetes can take action themselves to lower their blood glucose levels. Since type 2 diabetes is usually caused by obesity and lack of exercise, a healthy diet and more exercise are usually already a good therapy. Just 30 minutes of exercise per day reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by 40 percent! Since the pancreas stops working at some point, it is usually necessary to administer insulin or take tablets.