Type 2 diabetesIn type 2 diabetes, sugar accumulates in the blood because the body's cells do not respond sufficiently to the hormone insulin and do not absorb enough sugar from the blood. Some people with type 2 diabetes only need to change their diet, lose some weight and exercise more to treat it.
At a glance
– Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the metabolism. – In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas actually produces enough insulin, but it no longer works properly on the ties and body cells. – In untreated type 2 diabetes, blood glucose levels are permanently elevated. Various risk factors such as obesity. Too little exercise promotes type 2 diabetes. – Just a change in lifestyle can help lower blood glucose levels.
What is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a disease of the metabolism. It causes sugar to accumulate in the blood. In this form of diabetes, insulin is increasingly poorly absorbed and utilized by the body's cells. Type 2 diabetes often only becomes noticeable at an older age. It is therefore also called "adult-onset" diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes: about 90 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
Some people, once diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, need to make few changes in their lives to manage their diabetes. With them already more movement is enough. A small weight loss from.
Others are dependent on permanent treatment with tablets or insulin. In such cases, it is especially important to understand the disease and know what you can do for your own health.
How can type 2 diabetes be diagnosed??
In untreated diabetes, blood glucose levels are permanently elevated. This is not always noticeable at the beginning: type 2 diabetes can develop over years without symptoms appearing. A permanently elevated blood glucose level can cause the following symptoms:
– strong thirst – increased urge to urinate – tiredness and lack of drive – nausea – dizziness
If blood glucose levels are very high, the patient may also suffer from impaired consciousness or even unconsciousness (diabetic coma).
Why does type 2 diabetes develop??
The organs in the body need sugar (glucose) to obtain energy for their metabolism. The hormone insulin helps to distribute the sugar well in the body.
Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood after a meal, for example, when blood glucose levels rise.
With the help of insulin, the cells, for example in the liver and muscles, can absorb the sugar in the blood. If this process is disturbed, the blood sugar is not properly utilized. This causes the sugar level in the blood to rise.
A too high blood glucose level is called hyperglycemia.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces enough insulin, but it no longer works properly on the body's cells and in the tie. The medical term for this is "insulin resistance.".
What increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes??
Various risk factors can promote type 2 diabetes. These include:
– obesity and insufficient physical activity – smoking – low-fiber, high-fat, high-sugar diet – certain medications that worsen sugar metabolism – genetic predisposition: In some families, the disease occurs frequently.
How does diabetes type 2 progress??
If inadequately treated diabetes persists for many years, i.e. the blood permanently contains too much sugar, the blood vessels can be damaged. Then there is an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes and problems with blood circulation in the legs and feet (peripheral arterial occlusive disease, pAVK).
High blood prere further increases this risk. The small blood vessels of the eyes, nerves and kidneys can also be damaged. This can cause gradual loss of vision, sensory disturbances, and kidney damage.
Diabetes-related nerve damage and circulatory disorders can lead, for example, to a "diabetic foot". When this happens, pain in the foot is barely noticeable, and a prere point or small injury can quickly develop into a poorly healing wound: Since the legs and feet are poorly supplied with blood, wound healing is disturbed.
How to prevent type 2 diabetes?
You can do a lot yourself to prevent type 2 diabetes.
Lifestyle plays a decisive role: a balanced diet and sufficient exercise are especially important. If you are overweight, it is advisable to lose weight.
If there is an increased risk of diabetes, a change in diet and more exercise can often postpone the diagnosis by a few years. It is still unclear whether this can completely prevent type 2 diabetes.
How type 2 diabetes is diagnosed?
Type 2 diabetes develops slowly. As a result, there are often no or only mild symptoms at first. An elevated blood glucose level in the blood or urine is often only discovered during a routine checkup.
If type 2 diabetes is suspected, the doctor first asks about symptoms and other diseases. This is followed by a physical examination. A blood glucose measurement.
Blood is drawn several times a day to check blood glucose levels before the first meal of the day and throughout the day. The blood is examined in a laboratory. The HbA1c value provides information about the average blood glucose level over the last two to three months.
If blood sugar levels are high enough to cause typical symptoms, sugar can usually also be detected in the urine. For this purpose, easy-to-use urine test strips are available in doctors' offices and pharmacies in Germany.
How type 2 diabetes is treated?
Which treatment is sensible and appropriate for type 2 diabetes depends on many different factors: Important aspects are age, physical condition, other diseases, general life situation and personal goals.
A change in lifestyle can make a big difference: losing weight and getting more exercise can improve the effect of insulin and lower blood glucose levels.
Those who stop smoking also reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. Some people get their type 2 diabetes. Manage the associated risks with such behavioral changes alone.
People with more severe type 2 diabetes often need medication to lower their blood glucose levels. Some take tablets, others inject insulin or incretin mimetics: These are hormone-like agents that are designed to stimulate the body's own insulin production. It is also possible to combine tablets and injections. The most common medications used to treat type 2 diabetes (antidiabetics) are metformin, gliptins, and sulfonylureas. More in-depth information on type 2 diabetes. You will find any medication that may be necessary under health information.en.en.
How to live with type 2 diabetes?
In the case of type 2 diabetes, a number of things can be done to avoid medication. First and foremost is at least modest weight loss, although that can be challenging. Even small changes in everyday life such as a little more physical activity can have a positive effect: for example, if you get into the habit of walking more often.
If these measures are not sufficient, medication is an option. They must then be taken regularly over a long period of time. Many people with diabetes find it difficult to get used to the idea of having to take medication for the rest of their lives – especially if they don't feel ill and don't feel the effects of the medication immediately.
Especially shortly after diagnosis, treating type 2 diabetes can be a challenge. But those who know their disease can make its treatment a normal part of everyday life and thus maintain a good quality of life.
What else is worth knowing about type 2 diabetes??
Regardless of the therapy chosen, it is important to understand your own disease sufficiently and to know what you can do yourself.
It is important to have the support of a doctor and other specialists, for example from diabetes and nutritional counseling and from medical foot care (podiatry).
In addition, it is possible to participate in a disease management program. This structured treatment program includes diabetes education, counseling and comprehensive medical care by diabetes specialists.
– German Medical Association (BaK), National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV), Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). National health care guideline: Type 2 diabetes. S3 guideline. AWMF register number nvl-001g. 03.2021. – Landgraf R, Aberle J, Birkenfeld AL et al. Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 ; 127(S 01): S73-S92. – Yan Y, Sha Y, Yao G et al. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Medical Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(17): e3462.