Eye diseasesEye diseases Regardless of the severity, they have a strong impact on the quality of life. After all, the eye is our most important sensory organ. Provides us with a lot of information in everyday life. Timely consultation of the doctor is advisable, because there are different reasons why eye diseases can occur.
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What are eye diseases?
Eye diseases are frequent, because the eye has to deal with environmental stimuli and a wide variety of pathogens every day. If the eye is overloaded, inflammations and eye diseases can easily be the result. Injuries or metabolic disorders also play a role in this process. However, hereditary reasons or changes in age can also be triggers for eye diseases.
The human eye is very sensitive and often reacts quickly to external influences such as drafts, cold, smoke, or exposure to bright sunlight. The eye reacts to contact with bacteria and viruses. The conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid margins are particularly susceptible to infection. If no treatment is carried out, permanent damage to the eye, associated with impaired vision, may remain. Eye diseases must be clarified.
The causes of eye diseases are very diverse. In some eye diseases, external influences such as drafts, cold or heavy dust exposure play a role. Taking medications and diseases such as rheumatism also play a role in the development of eye diseases.
Typical eye diseases such as dry eyes are promoted by insufficient tear fluid from the conjunctiva and cornea, but also by working at a computer screen or air conditioning in the office.
In the case of eye diseases such as corneal inflammation, contact lenses that have been worn for too long can also be to blame. Herpes and fungal infections of the cornea are on the rise, possibly fueled by the rapid use of antibiotics.
In the case of eye diseases, for example conjunctivitis, bacteria are often the triggers. By a so-called smear infection it can come to an infection on other people. If the conjunctivitis was caused by an allergy or external stimuli, there is no danger of infection with these eye diseases.
Diseases of the eye can give indications of internal diseases. Thus, z.B. in the case of high blood prere curled or thickened veins before.
When to see a doctor?
Eye diseases do not have to be treated by a doctor in every case. In many cases they occur only temporarily. Are only a harmless symptom. However, a doctor should always be consulted if the eye diseases persist for several days and do not disappear on their own. Especially elderly people should always consult a doctor immediately when eye diseases appear.
Medical treatment is also necessary if the eye diseases cause changes in vision. This can be a serious disease, which requires an examination by a medical professional. Without treatment, the visual impairment may increase. Also in the case of pain of all kinds in the eye is the opinion. Examination of a medical doctor is necessary. Simple foreign bodies can be removed from the eye with the help of water and tears. However, if the eye disease causes severe pain that does not go away on its own, medical intervention is necessary. A doctor must also be consulted if the so-called "veil vision" occurs.
Symptoms and course
Eye diseases such as cataracts are rarely congenital. Due to the individual aging process the eye lens becomes cloudy. Glaucoma leads to a limitation of the visual field because the optic nerve is damaged. Eye diseases such as corneal inflammation can cause permanent damage to vision.
Styes are acute inflammations that occur on the edge of the eyelid, but also around the eyelashes. Bacteria are usually responsible for the inflammation, which heals on its own. In the case of macular degeneration, the retina in the back of the eye is attacked. Eye diseases such as these lead to loss of vision in the central visual field, which worsens as the disease progresses.
Typical forms and types
Nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism are optical defects, respectively. Refractive errors of the eye.
Eye diseases such as cataracts cause vision problems that become increasingly severe. The eye reacts more and more sensitively to glare. In most cases, increased eye prere is a warning sign of glaucoma. If the eyes are red or burning, eye diseases such as corneal inflammation are responsible. In this case, the vision is also impaired and one believes to have something in the eye. Eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration make the distorted perception noticeable. This also makes it more difficult to recognize people. Conjunctivitis usually manifests itself as reddened eyes or itching. An eye disease can, depending on its course. Cause ame a wide variety of complications. Since these take a wide field it is difficult to name an individual disease prognosis. Eye diseases such as these can lead to deterioration of vision, which can severely affect the patient's quality of life. This leads to considerable problems, especially in road traffic. The affected person will most likely have to wear a visual aid.
In severe cases, diseases of the eye can also end in blindness. Eye diseases can also lead to dehydration of the eye, which causes an unpleasant feeling and often itching in the patient. It also increases the risk of infection, which significantly increases the likelihood of vision deterioration.
Behind an eye disease can also be other dangerous underlying diseases. For example, elevated sugar, as is the case with diabetes, leads to retinopathy. Other consequences of long-term diabetes can be kidney failure (diabetic nephropathy) or destruction of nerves (diabetic neuropathy). Also an allergy would be a conceivable possibility for an eye disease. In addition, the respiratory tract can swell, so that the affected person can hardly breathe and has shortness of breath. In some cases, it can even lead to an allergic shock, which can lead to death.
Treatment and therapy
Typical eye diseases such as dry eyes are treated with tear substitutes. Additional treatment to inhibit the inflammation is decided by the doctor in each individual case.
Cataract is usually treated surgically. In the case of glaucoma, surgery does not always help to improve vision loss. If conjunctivitis is suspected, consultation with a specialist is required. Only he can make the diagnosis. Recommend treatment accordingly.
In case of eye diseases, this clarification is important to avoid late effects or aggravation. For the treatment of a stye, antibiotic eye drops and ointments help to remove the responsible bacteria. If styes are left untreated, more persistent redness may occur on the edge of the eyelid.
Age-related masculadegeneration is an eye disease that occurs in both dry and wet forms. In the dry form there is a regression of the cornea. Gradual impairment due to the loss of the photoreceptor cells. Wet age-related masculadegeneration progresses faster, triggers bleeding and swelling, and leads to the formation of scars. It is less common than the dry form, but vision loss occurs more quickly.
The examination with a slit lamp, the biomicroscope, allows an exact diagnosis. With timely treatment, symptoms can be quickly alleviated. So an aggravation is averted. Permanent damage in eye diseases not inevitable.
Here you will find your medication
In eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, regular examination of the retina is important. In general, in case of visual disturbances or problems in perception as well as pain around the eye, a doctor should be consulted as soon as possible.
Wearing sunglasses and being more mindful about protecting your eyes is a good step to take for the health of your eyesight. If the eyes are known to be particularly sensitive, a more mindful lifestyle may also be a helpful measure.
A regular eye examination by a competent ophthalmologist is recommended. Many eye diseases are discovered later.
– Grehn F.: Ophthalmology. Springer publishing house. 30. Edition 2008 – Lang, G.: Ophthalmology. Thieme, Stuttgart 2014 – Wutta, H.P., Brucker, K.: Theory and practice of eye acupuncture. Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart 2014 – Faller, A. et al.: The human body. This article was written in accordance with the current medical literature. Well-founded scientific sources written. Quality arance by: Dr. med. Nonnenmacher Last updated on: 15. November 2021