Hiv infection symptoms signs causes and treatment hiv

HIV infection: symptoms and signsMost symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus A (HIV) infection do not occur until a person becomes immunodeficient, developing after long-term infection. This usually occurs many years after an initial infection with the virus. On average, symptoms of immunodeficiency appear eight to 10 years after viral infection, but they may not appear for longer than that.

Some people suffer a flu-like illness at the time of initial infection with HIV. Not all people who become infected have these symptoms, and it is unclear why some people do and others do not. The initial infection may be mild or very severe and may be accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes, joint and muscle pain, and sore throat. Other symptoms may include chills, night sweats and ulcers in the mouth. The symptoms and signs of initial HIV infection have also been compared to infectious mononucleosis.

Typically, symptoms appear after years of infection with the virus, reflecting declining immune function due to a decrease in the number of CD4 T cells. These symptoms may include recurrent infections, including fungal infections of the mouth (oral thrush) or vagina, skin rashes, fungal infections of the nails, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, leukoplakia of the tongue, and weight loss.

If immune function continues to decline, more severe symptoms and signs can occur, including dementia and cognitive changes, severe weight loss, wasting syndrome, opportunistic infections and malignancies. Some of the opportunistic infections that can occur are cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcal meningitis, Cryptosporidium Diarrhea, Pneumocystic jiroveci Pneumonia (formerly called Pneumocystic carinii Pneumonia or PCP), Toxoplasma Encephalitis, tuberculosis and herpes virus infections. Malignancies that typically occur as a result of HIV infection include Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Causes of HIV infection

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that is transmitted by body fluids. Contact with blood, semen, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, and breast milk from an infected person can cause infection. In the U.S., HIV infection is usually spread through sexual activity or sharing needles or syringes. Transmission from a pregnant woman to her fetus is another possible cause of HIV infection.

Related symptoms and signs

– fever – swollen lymph nodes

Other symptoms and signs of HIV infection

– Changes in menstrual cycle – Chronic cough – Diarrhea – Difficulty swallowing – Fatigue – Fever – Fungal infection of the mouth and esophagus – Fungal nails – Groin swelling – Headache – Leukoplakia of the tongue – Minor pain – Malignancies – Sores in the mouth – Night sweats – Oral thrush – Other opportunistic infections – Rash – Shortness of breath – Sore throat – Sweating – Swollen lymph nodes – Fatigue – Vaginal candidiasis – Vomiting – Weight loss – White tongue

Medically checked by a doctor on 10.10.2019 Symptom Examiner

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