Important eye disease specialists at a glance

You are looking for information about eye diseases. Specialists for treatment or surgery? Here you will find only experienced specialists and clinics in Germany, Switzerland or Austria. Find out about important eye diseases. Treatment options or contact our experts.

List of doctors for eye diseases

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Bern Eye Clinic at the Lindenhofspital

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Breyer, Kaymak& Klabe eye surgery

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

IROC AG – Institute for Refractive and Ophthalmo-Surgery

Major eye disease specialists at a glance

Prof. Dr. med. Anselm Junemann, F.E.B.O.

Erlangen posterior segment of the eye

Major eye diseases specialists at a glance

Dr. med. Laszlo Kiraly

Anterior segment of the eye Leipzig

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Dr. med. Florian Kretz (FEBO)

important eye disease specialists at a glance

Dr. med. Tobias H. Neuhann

important eye disease specialists at a glance

Precise Vision Ophthalmologists

Anterior segment of the eye Erlangen

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Precise Vision ophthalmologists – Eye day clinic Greven

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Precise Vision ophthalmologists – Rheine eye clinic

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Prof. Dr. med. Peter Szurman

Eye Surgery Sulzbach Saar

Important eye disease specialists at a glance

Prof. Dr. med. Armin Wolf

Posterior segment of the eye Ulm

Information about eye diseases

Structure of the eye

The eyeball is divided into two sections: The anterior section of the eye includes the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and anterior and posterior chambers. The posterior segment of the eye is formed by the vitreous body, choroid, retina and optic nerve papilla.

Anterior segment of the eye:

The cornea, together with the sclera, forms the shell of the eye. The cornea is the transparent part of the eye shell. It merges into the white sclera. The sclera also covers the invisible back part of the eye. Behind the cornea is the anterior chamber of the eye, which is filled with aqueous humor. The anterior chamber of the eye is bounded posteriorly by the iris (iris skin). The iris has a round opening in its center, the pupil. Depending on the incidence of light, the pupil becomes larger or smaller. Behind the iris is a second, smaller cavity filled with aqueous humor, the posterior chamber of the eye. The ciliary body (ray body), zonular fibers and lens are connected to the posterior chamber of the eye. Ciliary body and zonular fibers form the so-called suspension apparatus of the lens. The zonular fibers connecting the ciliary body and the lens. When a muscle in the ciliary body contracts, there is a pull on the zonular fibers and the lens changes shape. This changes the refractive power of the lens. By adjusting the refractive power (accommodation), one can see things near and far.

Posterior segment of the eye:

The vitreous body (corpus vitreum) fills the interior of the eye behind the lens. It is filled with a fine framework of collagenous bevels and a hydrogel. The retina and the optic nerve papilla are attached to the vitreous body. The retina contains millions of photoreceptors that receive light stimuli. Light stimuli are transmitted via the optic disc and the optic nerve. The next layer is the choroid (chorioidea). The choroid contains numerous vessels to supply the retina. The outermost layer is the sclera (cornea).

What are the eye diseases?

The eye is a highly complex sensory organ. Accordingly, there are many different eye diseases. The following is a list of eye diseases:

Diseases of the conjunctiva

– Lacerations, injuries and burns – Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) – Changes and tumors

Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus

– Inflammation of the lacrimal gland – Inflammation of the nasolacrimal duct or the lacrimal sac, associated with lacrimal outflow obstruction – Lacrimal outflow obstruction in newborns – Keratoconjunctivitis sicca – "the dry eye" – Tumors

Diseases of the cornea

– Injuries and burns – inflammations (keratitis) – keratoconus – conical protrusion of the corneal center with thinning of the cornea – corneal degenerations – corneal dystrophies; disorders of corneal metabolism, associated with corneal opacities

Diseases of the sclera

– Color changes – Atrophy (regression) and degenerative changes – Inflammation (episcleritis and scleritis) – Injuries

Diseases of the lens

– Lens opacity (cataract, cataract) – changes in the shape and position of the lens

Diseases of the pupil, iris and ciliary body

– Changes in pupil size – Inflammation of the iris and ciliary body (iridocyclitis and uveitis) – Injuries – Tumors – Malformations

– inflammations – tumors – degenerations – malformations

Diseases of the retina

– Congenital disorders of color vision – Degenerative retinal diseases – Retinal detachment (ablatio retinae), retinal splitting (retinoschisis) – Vascular diseases of the retina – Diabetic retinopathy, venous and arterial occlusions and other circulatory disorders, retinopathy of prematurity – Tumors – Inflammations of the retina and retinal vessels – Macular degenerations – Diseases of the retinal center (macula) – Hereditary retinal dystrophies – Retinal injuries

Glaucoma(green star)

– Primary glaucomas – Secondary glaucomas – Glaucomas caused by other eye diseases or general diseases

Diseases of the orbit

– inflammation – tumors – endocrine orbitopathy – disease of the orbit associated with thyroid dysfunction – vascular disease – injury

Visual defects

– Myopia (nearsightedness) – Hypermetropia (farsightedness) – Astigmatism (astigmatism of the cornea) – Anisometropia (inequality of the eyes) – Presbyopia (presbyopia) – Accommodation paralysis – lack of adjustment of the refractive power due to paralysis of the ciliary muscle or due to nerve paralysis – accommodation spasm – lack of adjustment of the refractive power due to ciliary muscle spasm – asthenopia – rapid fatigue of the eyes during close work


– Early infantile strabismus – Normosensory late strabismus – Strabismus after the first year of life – Microstrabismus – unilateral strabismus with a very small angle – Outward strabismus (strabismus divergens, exotropia) – Latent strabismus (heterophoria) – Amblyopia – Visual impairment as a result of childhood strabismus

Eye muscle paralysis

– Eye muscle paralysis due to cranial nerve damage – Paralysis due to eye muscle diseases – Paralysis due to injuries

Diseases of the vitreous

– Degenerative changes – Inflammations

Diseases of the optic nerve and visual pathway

– Optic disc congestion, optic disc swelling – Inflammation of the optic nerve – Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) – Infarction of the papillary tie – Atrophies of the optic nerve – Tumors of the optic nerve – Chiasma syndrome – Spatial growth (usually a tumor) in the area of the optic nerve junction – Lesions of the optic pathway

What are the most common eye diseases?

Every second person in Europe is short-sighted or long-sighted. In addition to refractive errors, there are other common eye diseases that affect vision. Mainly older people are affected. Here is an overview of the main eye diseases:

Defective vision

In the case of Nearsightedness (myopia), the affected person can see things in the distance only blurred, in case of a Farsightedness (hypermetropia)he sees in the near blurred. Visual acuity depends on the refraction of light through the cornea and lens and the length of the eyeball. The incident light is refracted by the cornea and lens and projected onto the retina. If the eyeball is too long (in the case of nearsightedness) or too short (in the case of farsightedness), the result is a blurred image. More rarely, changes in the cornea cause. Lens a myopia or hyperopia. In presbyopia, the eye's ability to accommodate decreases. This means that the eye can no longer adjust well to the distance in question. The lens of young people is elastic, so its refractive power is changeable. With age, the elasticity of the lens decreases. At an age of about 60 years the lens is rigid. Presbyopia is therefore a normal symptom of old age.

Podcast Intraocular Lenses (IOL)

Dry eye

Ceratoconjunctivitis sicca, often referred to simply as "dry eye," is a common eye disease. Dry eye is a wetting disorder of the conjunctiva and cornea. The lacrimal glands either produce too little tear fluid or the composition of the tear fluid is altered. Sometimes the meibomian glands (sebaceous glands at the edges of the eyelids) also produce too little secretion. The eyes feel dry, are reddened, burn and water. The patient has the feeling of having a foreign body in the eye.

Age-related Macular degeneration

Almost 10 percent of people in Germany suffer from at least an early stage of age-related macular degeneration. The macula is a spot about five millimeters in size located centrally in the retina. At this point the highest visual acuity is reached. In age-related macular degeneration, this central area is damaged by an accumulation of metabolic products. The patient sees a gray shadow in the center of the field of vision. Visual acuity is severely impaired. Reading is often no longer possible.

glaucoma (glaucoma)

About 900.000 people are affected in Germany. Glaucoma is a group of diseases with characteristic damage to the optic nerve caused by increased intraocular prere. The cause of the increased intraocular prere is an obstruction of aqueous humor outflow. Due to the outflow obstruction, there is more aqueous humor in the chambers of the eye and the intraocular prere increases. A distinction is made between primary. Secondary glaucoma. Primary glaucoma develops spontaneously due to deposits or adhesions in the chamber angle. Secondary glaucoma develops as a result of another eye disease or a general disease. Typical symptoms are eye pain and headaches, and if the damage is severe, impaired vision.

Diabetic retinopathy

More than 20 percent of all diabetics suffer from diabetic retinopathy (retinal disease). After 20 years of diabetes, up to 90 percent of diabetics develop signs of diabetic retinopathy! The elevated blood sugar damages small vessels in the retina. As a result, new worse vessels are formed, which often become brittle. There are hemorrhages and deposits of fat and protein in the retina. Fluid accumulates in the central area of the retina, the macula, causing this area to swell (macular edema). If the retina is severely damaged, there is a risk of retinal detachment. Signs of diabetic retinopathy include blurred vision, dark or red spots or a gray haze in the visual field, and seeing flashes of light as the retina begins to detach.


Cataract, also known as cataract, is a clouding of the lens. Cataract, the age-related clouding of the lens, is the most common form of cataract, accounting for 90 percent of all cases. There are also other forms of lens opacities, which are connected with other eye diseases or general diseases. Due to altered structural proteins. Compression of the lens cells leads to clouding of the lens. Patients generally have poorer vision, are quickly blinded, for example at night when driving or in sunshine, see a gray haze and perceive colors in a weakened way.

Podcast Cataract

Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva)

Inflammation of the conjunctiva is very common and can have many different causes: irritation of the conjunctiva, for example by smoke, dust, wind or contact lenses, an allergy, for example hay fever, or an infection with viruses or bacteria triggers conjunctivitis. Typical symptoms are reddened conjunctiva, burning, itching and lacrimation. Eyelids can swell severely and bacterial infections cause pus to collect between the eyelid and the eye.


A stye is a small lump located either on the inner side of the eyelid or on the edge of the eyelid. It is caused by inflammation of the sebaceous-. Sweat glands of the eyelid. The inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection. Bacteria found on the skin, for example staphylococci, are usually involved. The stye can cause painful swelling of the eyelid.

How are eye diseases treated?

The treatment depends on the disease. For the treatment of refractive errors, glasses and contact lenses are the first choice. It is also possible to correct a defective vision surgically. Surgical correction is called refractive surgery. Mainly used methods that change the refractive power of the cornea or lens. This is how ametropia can be corrected.

Dry eye and conjunctivitis are treated with eye drops or eye ointments. In dry eye, an artificial tear fluid, which is dripped into the eyes several times a day, helps to replace the tear fluid. Various eye drops or ointments are used to treat conjunctivitis. Depending on the cause of the conjunctivitis, these may contain, for example, cortisone to reduce inflammation or antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection. Antibiotic eye ointments are also used in barley grain treatment. If this does not help, the ophthalmologist can remove the stye with a minor surgical procedure.

Treatment of macular degeneration is only possible to a limited extent. It is a symptom of age and age-related changes cannot be reversed. However, there are treatments that help in certain cases. If the disease is accompanied by vascularization of the choroid, there is the option of injecting VEGF inhibitors directly into the eye (intravitreal injection). VEGF inhibitors inhibit new vessel formation. Can thereby improve vision. Intravitreal injection of drugs is also used for the therapy of diabetic retinopathy: Steroids and antibodies against VEGF inhibit inflammation and new vessel formation in the retina. Laser coagulation also helps against vascular neoplasms and hemorrhages in the retina. Blood vessels are sclerosed with a green laser.

There are various options for the therapy of glaucoma. Each treatment aims to lower intraocular prere. Eye drops can help. In many cases, however, intraocular prere can be reduced by laser treatment or surgery: selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) or trabeculectomy creates new drainage paths for aqueous humor.

There is no effective medication for a cataract. Therefore, surgery is the treatment of choice once the cataract has progressed to the point where it interferes with the patient's daily life and reading ability. During surgery, the doctor removes the clouded lens. Subsequently, an artificial lens can be inserted. Contact lenses or glasses can also compensate for the altered refractive power of the eye caused by the loss of the lens.

Which doctors and clinics are specialists in eye diseases?

Eye diseases are treated by specialists in ophthalmology (ophthalmology). Ophthalmologists can specialize in certain areas. Thus, there are specialists in refractive surgery, cataracts, glaucoma and retinal diseases. Especially when an operation is imminent, the patient should choose a doctor who is well versed in the respective field and regularly performs the upcoming operation.

We help you find an expert for your condition. All listed doctors and clinics have been checked by us for their outstanding specialization in the field of eye diseases and are awaiting your inquiry or treatment request.

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