Symptoms of diabetes mellitusDiabetes mellitus or also called diabetes is accompanied by a number of symptoms. Dietary habits. Insulin resistance is the cause. The Symptoms are similar in both types, although in type I a life-threatening ketoacidosis may be the first sign, accompanied by disturbances of consciousness and vomiting.
There can be several, for a Diabetes disease non-specific symptoms may occur, such as.B.
symptoms of Diabetes, due to high blood glucose levels are great thirst, weight loss and frequent trips to the toilet to urinate. The skin may be affected by Diabetes an itching, fungal infections, a reddening of the face and brownish foci on both lower legs.
Frequently, diabetes leads to disturbances of the Nerves and thus diseases from the Neurology on.
In men, symptoms may include Potency disorder occur and in women it is possible that the monthly menstruation absent. Diabetic involvement of the lens of the eye may cause Impaired vision come.
While with type 1 diabetics the so-called "hyperglycemic acute symptoms" such as weight loss, increased feeling of thirst and frequent urination occur, chronic Consequential symptoms of diabetes, z.B. occlusions of the leg arteries (pAVK = peripheral arterial occlusive disease), in type 2 diabetes Cause for complaint manifestations.
The disease Diabetes can be diagnosed from a typical medical history (anamnesis): The diabetic complains of increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss and fatigue.
The physician continues to look for Symptoms of a metabolic derailment and checks whether late diabetic damage already exists. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a genetic component, therefore information about other cases of the disease in the family can be useful for the diagnosis of "diabetes".
For the determination of the disease diabetes the Determination of the blood glucose level necessary. The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed if
1. in a patient with symptoms of occasional blood glucose value, d.h. without the patient having observed a fasting phase, is greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). 2. the Glucose level in blood is above 126 mg/dl in two independent measurements in a fasting patient. Fasting means that there has been no food intake for 8 hours before the examination. For comparison: in a healthy person, the blood glucose level in a fasting state is normally below 110 mg/dl. 3. in the context of a oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT)the blood glucose value is still above 200 mg/dl 2 hours after glucose administration.
The oral glucose tolerance test proceeds as follows: The patient takes 3 days high-carbohydrate diet to itself (at least 150g per day). After subsequent 10-16 hours of abstinence from food and alcohol, the patient drinks 75g of glucose within 5 minutes in the morning while sitting or lying down and remains under medical supervision. The blood glucose level is determined fasting and 2 hours after drinking the glucose solution. Values above 140mg/dl and below 200 mg/dl indicate that the patient has impaired glucose tolerance, values above 200 mg/dl prove an Diabetes mellitus.
For more important information about this test, see: Glucose tolerance test – What you should know!
Also a determination of the glucose in the urine should be done. If glucose is repeatedly found in the urine, diabetes mellitus is present with a few exceptions. This is due to the following reason: from a blood glucose value of 160-180 mg/dl, which in a diabetic is too low due to the lack of Insulin action is present, glucose is removed from the Kidney filtered into the urine. This value is called "renal threshold", because from this point on the excess glucose is excreted by the kidneys. Filtration of glucose causes water to be removed from the body and urine volume to increase. The increased urine volume explains the typical symptoms of the diseased person
Another diagnostic tool is the Ketone body determination in the urine. Ketone bodies are substances that are produced by insulin deficiency produced. If their concentration in the urine is elevated, this indicates an insulin deficiency and is a warning sign of metabolic derailment.
Further examinations can be carried out to determine concomitant diseases and diabetic secondary damage to other organs.
– the examination of the kidney function – the determination of the blood lipid values and the Cholesterol
– a ocular fundus examination after dilatation of the pupil – vascular and neurological examinations (Neurology) – as well as the assessment of the function of the Thyroid gland.
Every 3 years, a fasting blood glucose level is determined as a screening test for diabetes mellitus carried out in persons over 45 years of age. In the case of risk groups, this examination is carried out at an earlier stage:
– if the patient suffers from symptoms such as hypertension, Overweight suffers from diabetes or a lipometabolic disorder, – if a first-degree relative has diabetes, – after delivery of a child with a birth weight above 4500 g, – after a history of gestational diabetes, – if a patient has a history of impaired Glucose tolerance has occurred.
Read more about this topic here: frequent urination
Basically, there are two different therapeutic approaches to drug therapy Therapy of diabetes mellitus.
On the one hand one tries with medicines, which one must take the rest function of the pancreas to support as good as possible, that the still produced insulin quantity is sufficient for the daily demand.
On the other hand, if the pancreas is no longer able to produce enough insulin, insulin can be injected from the outside in various forms.
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