The brain 3. Malfunctions and diseases biology telekolleg br. En

Given the diversity of structures and functions of the brain, it is not surprising that there are also malfunctions and diseases. Here are some examples.

Status: 12.03.2019 | Archive

We do not always perceive our environment as it really is. The reason: our brain not only registers stimuli, it also processes them. Our brain can not only process many facts at the same time, it apparently also wants to be always quite perfect. This perfectionism leads to. Again also once to a failure. Then our brain interprets things that are not there at all. Two examples:

Optical illusions

Example 1 – Question

Our brain signals us: These strips are of different lengths. The front one is short and is in the middle of the road, the back one is much longer, it goes from roadside to roadside.

Example 1 – Solution

In fact, both bars are the same size. Our brain has processed experience when looking at this image: What is farther away appears smaller, what is closer appears larger. This experience is usually true, but in this example our brain was wrong.

Example 2

The brain 3. malfunctions and diseases biology telekolleg br. de

Let this picture sink in. Probably you see two triangles – although in reality only one is present. The second interprets our brain to this.

Diseases: Paraplegia

Permanent damage to the central nervous system may occur in the event of an accident: if the spinal cord is severed, stimuli can no longer be transmitted via the motor nerve pathways from the severed site onwards. The result is paraplegia – the patient can no longer move from the point of injury. Sensory sensations of the skin can also no longer be transmitted to the brain.

Diseases: Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is one of the degenerative diseases of the brain. The myelin sheaths of the nerve cell processes are attacked by the immune system and become inflamed. The nerve cells are damaged. Connections in the brain destroyed. The disease progresses in relapses and the symptoms are varied – among other things, they can occur: Visual disturbances, numbness, pain, paralysis, dizziness and speech disorders.

Diseases: Alzheimer's disease

Another degenerative disease of the brain is Alzheimer's disease. In this process, nerve cells in the brain are successively degraded for reasons that are not yet finally explained. Neurotransmitters can no longer be produced or attached to the destroyed cells. In Alzheimer's patients, the regions of the brain that are responsible for memory function are particularly affected. Therefore, people suffering from Alzheimer's disease can no longer retrieve or retain information. Asking the same monotonous questions several times in a row. Not only the study of Alzheimer's disease, but also the entire brain and the responsibilities of the individual regions are still the subject of intensive research.

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