Three day fever symptoms and therapy

Three-day feverThree-day fever is a common viral infection in infants and young children. Fever is typically followed by a pale rash, especially on the trunk and neck. Mostly the infection is harmless. Need only palliative measures.

At a glance

– Three-day fever is a common, usually harmless viral infection in infants and young children. – Typical is a high fever lasting several days, followed by a skin rash. – In addition, other flu-like symptoms may occur, occasionally also febrile convulsions. These are usually short. Not dangerous. – It is important that the sick children drink plenty of fluids. – In addition, fever-reducing measures are often helpful.

What is three-day fever??

Three-day fever is a common, usually harmless viral illness in infants and young children. The infection is typically characterized by a high fever lasting 3 to 5 days, followed by a blotchy pale red skin rash. Doctors also call the three-day fever exanthema subitum.

Since the body loses fluids due to the high fever, it is important that the sick children drink sufficiently. Fever suppositories can also be used for treatment. Lukewarm calf compresses be useful.

Three-day fever is triggered by certain herpes viruses. However, they are not to be confused with the pathogens of cold sores or genital herpes, which also belong to the herpes virus family.

What are the symptoms of three days fever?

Three-day fever typically occurs in two phases: a fever phase and a subsequent rash. There are also forms with very mild symptoms. Sometimes the disease is hardly noticeable.

Phase with fever

High fever occurs about 1 to 2 weeks after infection. It often rises to over 39.5 degrees and usually lasts 3 to 5 days. The sick children may be irritable during the fever phase, but otherwise often seem little affected.

In addition to fever, other signs of illness may develop, such as:

– Cough and runny nose

– an inflamed throat with red spots on the palate and uvula

– Swollen lymph nodes on the neck

– Swollen eyelids

– In infants, additionally a tense and bulging fontanelle – this is the soft, not yet ossified part of the skull

Important to know: Occasionally, a febrile convulsion also occurs during the fever phase, which may be accompanied by twitching in the arms and legs, blue lips, or loss of consciousness. Usually such convulsions are short and harmless. The child recovers quickly.

Phase with skin rash

At the end of the fever phase, the body temperature usually decreases very quickly. At the same time, a skin rash with small pink spots or slight nodules develops within hours, which usually do not itch.

The rash occurs mainly on the trunk and neck, but may also spread to the arms, legs, and face. After a few days – sometimes after a few hours – the rash disappears again.

What causes three-day fever??

Three-day fever is caused by certain herpes viruses, known as human herpesvirus 6 and, less commonly, human herpesvirus 7. The pathogens are also found in healthy people, such as older siblings or the parents of a sick child. The viruses are probably transmitted mainly through saliva droplets, for example when coughing and sneezing or during close physical contact. There is no vaccination.

By age 3, virtually all children come in contact with the causative agents of three-day fever at some time or another. Only some infants. Infants develops symptoms. Often the infection remains without consequences. Does not cause discomfort. After infection, viruses are not completely killed, but remain in the body for life.

If the immune system is very weakened, for example in children with cancer, the herpes viruses can become active again. In people with immunodeficiency, complications such as inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) can occur.

How to detect three-day fever?

Pediatricians diagnose three-day fever based on the signs of illness: A high fever lasting several days, a rapid subsiding of the high fever and a subsequent skin rash are typical of the infection.

As long as the rash is still absent, however, three-day fever is not easy to distinguish from other febrile illnesses. Then the doctor may want to rule out other causes. For example, a urine test will rule out an inflammation of the bladder or renal pelvis that needs treatment.

How to treat three-day fever?

In the case of a three-day fever, it is usually sufficient to treat the symptoms of the illness. Here's how fever suppositories and lukewarm calf compresses can help bring down a fever.

It is important that sick children drink enough because babies and toddlers in particular lose a lot of fluids due to high fevers. Water, diluted juices or tea with dextrose are suitable. If the child refuses to drink, parents should contact the doctor immediately.

If a febrile convulsion occurs during the fever phase, it is helpful not to hold the child too tightly and to protect him or her from injury. Especially if the child has a febrile seizure for the first time, the emergency number 112 should be dialed. The emergency physician can then rule out other causes for the convulsion and – if necessary – administer a drug to interrupt the convulsion.

Febrile convulsions can be frightening, but are usually medically harmless and do not cause permanent damage.

For more information on febrile seizure, such as how to treat it, visit gesundheitsinformation.en. Professional association of children-. Adolescent physicians e.V.V. (BVKJ]. Pediatricians and adolescents in the network. Three-Day Fever. Retrieved 06.07.2021. – DynaMed (Internet), Ipswich (MA). Roseola Infantum. EBSCO Information Services. Record No. T115041. 2018 (1995). Retrieved 06.07.2021. – Mullins TB, Krishnamurthy K. Roseola Infantum. [Updated 2021 July 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Retrieved 06.07.2021. – UpToDate (Internet). Roseola infantum (exanthem subitum). Wolters Kluwer 2021 . Retrieved on 06.07.2021.

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