Vaccines bgv vaccinate 1

VaccinesThe preparation and composition of the vaccines depends on the type of pathogen against which the vaccine is given. There is a significant difference between live and inactivated vaccines.

Live vaccines

Live vaccines contain small amounts of living and reproducible pathogens that are usually grown in the laboratory on special culture media or in cell cultures and are highly attenuated. In very rare cases they can cause a mild form of the disease. Such vaccination diseases mainly affect patients with a weakened immune system. To avoid the associated risks, certain high-risk patients are therefore advised against vaccination with live vaccines.

Vaccination with live vaccines is z. B. against chickenpox, rubella, measles or mumps. The vaccination protection is usually very effective. Usually lasts a lifetime after basic immunization.

Vaccines bgv vaccinate 1

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Combination vaccines

A single "prick can protect against several diseases at the same time. So z. B. thanks to the 6-fold combination vaccine, simultaneous vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, whooping cough, Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B is possible.

Inactivated vaccines

Inactivated vaccines contain killed pathogens or parts of them, which can no longer reproduce. There is no risk of contracting a vaccine-related disease. Serious side effects after vaccination with inactivated vaccines are very rare. However, the vaccination protection wears off after a certain time, so that a booster becomes necessary.

With inactivated vaccines, z. B. Vaccinated against tetanus, hepatitis A and B, early summer meningoencephalitis (TBE), pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases.

Vector vaccines

Vector-based vaccines do not contain the pathogen itself, but only a specific genetic sequence that serves as a blueprint for one or more components of the pathogen. This genetic material is incorporated into carrier viruses, known as vectors, that are harmless to humans. Vaccination with the prepared carrier viruses introduces the blueprint for the pathogen components into the cells, where they are converted accordingly. An immune reaction takes place in which the immune system forms antibodies against these pathogen components. Vector vaccines come z. B. used to vaccinate against Ebola and Covid-19.

mRNA vaccines

The technology of mRNA vaccines is used for the first time against Covid-19. These vaccines also only introduce certain information into our cells so that a specific viral trait is produced by ourselves. This is achieved with the help of mRNA (abbreviation for messenger ribonucleic acid). mRNA carries information for building a protein. Covid-19 mRNA vaccines contain the mRNA of so-called spike proteins found on the envelope of the coronavirus. After vaccination with the mRNA, which is packaged in a fat envelope, the body's cells read the blueprint and make the spike proteins. The immune system recognizes these proteins as foreign. Produces specific antibodies. This means that the immune system is prepared in the event of an infection with the real virus and can immediately start the defense reaction.

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