How to recognize and treat skin diseases correctly

The skin is the body's largest organ and serves as its most important protective shield – but when it becomes diseased, itchy and painful, it quickly becomes its biggest enemy. How to recognize skin diseases. When a visit to the doctor is unavoidable.

Skin diseases can have various causes: genetic predisposition, viruses, fungi, infections, contact with harmful substances or exposure to sunlight, as well as psychological strain and stress. But no matter for what reason the skin changes, itches, blushes or pustules – our self-confidence often suffers greatly from a skin disease.

Although many skin conditions are incurable, they can often be improved or almost completely contained by medication or therapy. The first step to cure is the exact determination of the disease, preferably by the family doctor or a dermatologist. Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can begin.

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Learn how to recognize, distinguish and properly treat skin diseases here.

Acne vulgaris is almost a widespread disease, as 85 percent of all Germans suffer or have suffered from it at some time in the past. Contrary to what is often thought, acne is not caused by poor hygiene, but by the bacterium Probionibacterium acnes, which triggers the formation of pimples. When the hormone androgen is increasingly produced during puberty, the sebaceous glands around the hair follicles enlarge, resulting in excessive sebum production and increased formation of horny material. This leads to a blockage of the excretory duct of the sebaceous gland and blackheads form, which can easily become inflamed due to the multiplication of the bacterium and turn into pimples, pustules and nodules.

This disease of the sebaceous gland system cannot be cured, but it can be kept in check. If over-the-counter medications are unsuccessful, the dermatologist can help. It is important to start the treatment at an early stage in order to prevent later scarring.

Also increasingly popular in the fight against acne: CBD drops and oil! This non-contagious itch is also called dermatitis. Appears as a rash or itchy inflammation on the skin. As a rule, the affected area is reddened, possibly swollen, weeps after a while and forms blisters that later crust over. There are many causes of eczema: Contact with skin-damaging substances such as chemicals, cosmetics or costume jewelry, an overproduction of sebum, chemicals in textiles or too much stress.

If home remedies such as coconut oil, alkaline soaps, avoiding the sun or oil baths do not help, a doctor should be consulted. He can check the cause of the eczema. Treat the rash accordingly.

Skin fungus

This disease of the upper layers of the skin often occurs between the toes or in the intimate area due to fungi growing on the skin, such as filamentous fungi or yeasts. Dermatomycosis is a skin fungus that causes reddened, itchy or grayish-white puffy skin with blisters. Skin fungi are favored by a warm, moist environment, such as sweating in skin folds, and are contagious. They can be transmitted from person to person through skin contact or via shoes and clothing and therefore require medical treatment.


Painful blisters on the lip or in the genital area: herpes is a skin infection caused by herpes simplex viruses. The triggers of this skin disease are two different virus species, which differ in the clinical picture. While herpes simplex virus 1 is responsible for most types of herpes on the face, type 2 is found in the genital area. Both forms are highly contagious and, once infected, remain in the body for life – even if dormant. Type 1 can be transmitted through close skin contact and smear infection; genital herpes is passed on during sexual intercourse. With normal type 2 herpes reactivation, there is no need to seek medical help. With the help of certain creams or tablets, the outbreak can be reduced, but not completely stopped. After a few days the blisters disappear by themselves.


Very dry skin and excruciating itching, especially on the scalp, face and hands, are typical symptoms of atopic dermatitis. The disease progresses chronically and in relapses. Neurodermatitis is hereditary and although this inflammatory skin disease cannot be cured causally, the quality of life of patients can be significantly improved by certain therapies. Provocation factors for the disease should be identified and avoided, the skin should be treated with a special cream and itch-relieving medication should be taken. Which therapy brings the best success should be discussed with a dermatologist.


People between the ages of 30 and 40 can be affected by what is known as copper erysipelas or facial erysipelas, which becomes more severe with age. The chronic skin disease manifests itself as red, itchy skin with pustules and papules in the midface – i.e. on the forehead, nose, cheeks or chin. What triggers the skin disease is not completely clear, but it is known that it is an interaction of various causes. Rosacea cannot be cured, but the relapses can be controlled by various therapies. In any case, a doctor should be consulted for this skin disease.

Psoriasis (psoriasis)

Psoriasis causes considerable itching and scaly skin in sufferers with pinpoint to palm-sized affected areas of skin on knees, elbows or scalp. The tricky thing is that psoriasis can affect not only the skin, but also organs and joints. It is hereditary, not contagious, runs chronically and usually manifests itself before the age of 40. Age at psoriasis type 1. The rare late type, psoriasis type 2, only appears after the age of 50. on before the age of 40. Since a therapy against psoriasis must be individually adapted to the patient and the course of the disease, a doctor is the right contact person here.

Sun allergy

After the first sunbath of the year, people affected by sun allergy suffer from blotchy redness, pimples and itchy skin. The symptoms usually disappear within a few days, provided that the skin is not exposed to the sun again. However, sun allergy can occur in different forms, which differ in their symptoms and manifestations: Light hives, Mallorca acne or polymorphic light dermatosis. A dermatologist can determine the exact allergy type through tests and treat accordingly.


The white spot disease or check skin was put in the limelight by the Canadian model Winnie Harlow, who has made her disease her trademark since 2014. Vitiligo sufferers lose the skin pigment melanin, causing bright spots on hands, face, arms or legs. This is probably due to an autoimmune disease – the body attacks itself. Vitiligo is not curable, all therapies serve primarily a cosmetic improvement. A doctor may prescribe ointments and immunomodulator- or cortisone-based preparations.


These benign growths of the skin, which are triggered by viruses, occur on the hands, feet or face. The sharply demarcated, flat or raised growths can be contagious and are transmitted by contact or smear infection through the smallest skin lesions. Warts do not usually cause pain to those affected – unless they occur in the form of plantar warts on the soles of the feet.

A doctor must not be consulted until verrucosis (the infestation of the whole body) has occurred. Podiatrists can help with the feet, over-the-counter medications and icing sprays from the pharmacy can get rid of warts on the hands and face.

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