Infections coronavirus pz pharmazeutische zeitung

CoronavirusThe SARS-CoV-2 virus has changed our society. Covid-19 pathogen spreading globally since late 2019. Poses enormous challenges for science. It has taken it and quickly developed tests and vaccinations, including for children. On the effectiveness of quarantine measures. The wearing of masks is also growing steadily in knowledge.

In the first nine months of last year, according to an evaluation, about 300.000 people with prolonged symptoms after corona infections have been treated in doctors' offices.

In the U.S., a study shows the effectiveness of Covid 19 vaccinations in protecting the population: the higher the Covid 19 vaccine coverage rate in a county, the fewer corona-associated deaths were reported there.

For the past few years, the number of countries where vaccinations are given in pharmacies has been growing. This is what the World Federation of Pharmacists (FIP) reports. Worldwide, it is also becoming clear that the biggest positive factor is the motivation of pharmacists.

Blood type has some influence on individual corona infection risk, according to scientific evidence. Study data now also suggest a role for blood group already in coronavirus transmission.

Permanently exhausted and worn out: chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) pulls sufferers out of active life. Only now is research focusing on the neurological disease.

In South Africa, a network of researchers is monitoring the new omicron lines BA.4 and BA.5 accurate. They could escape immunity by surviving infections and covid-19 vaccines. Worryingly, there is already talk of a fifth wave.

Measles cases worldwide are rising very rapidly. The WHO therefore sees millions of children at risk, as it reported yesterday, Wednesday, in Geneva. The number of reported cases in the first two months of 2022 was 79 percent higher than in the same period last year, he said.

Pharmacies generated additional sales of around 2.5 billion euros in the pandemic year 2021. At the DAV's business conference, however, ABDA division head Claudia Korf pointed out that these are special effects. Korf warned of the impact of austerity reform.

The necessary stabilization of health insurance finances must not be at the expense of local pharmacies. Instead of weakening, what is needed is a strengthening of nationwide drug supply, according to the tenor of today's DAV business conference.

The exact causes of the severe cases of hepatitis in children recently reported in several countries remain unclear. In Great Britain, where most of the children are ill, there is growing suspicion that a specific adenovirus may be behind the disease.

Vaccination protects against dangerous infectious diseases such as covid-19, measles, polio or influenza. Infants should be vaccinated according to the STIKO vaccination calendar at the RKI.

Our intestinal bacteria are essential for the digestion of food. But they also serve to defend and fight harmful pathogens, provide the body with a.

Almost one in three people in Germany is plagued by an allergy. Allergy triggers are many, the allergic reaction is often similar: stuffy nose, shortness of breath.

FAQ: Questions and answers about coronavirus

What is SARS-CoV-2?

It is an RNA virus from the coronavirus family, which was identified as the trigger of the disease "Covid-19" in early 2020. The acronym "SARS-CoV-2" stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and COronaVirus-2.

What other coronaviruses are there?

Other known members of this family include HCoV-NL63, -229E, -OC43, and -HKU1, as well as SARS and MERS-CoV. The first four representatives are endemic worldwide. Frequent causative agent of mild respiratory infections. The two zoonotic viruses SARS-. MERS-CoV, on the other hand, can cause severe pneumonia. The new pathogen SARS-CoV-2 is, as the name already says, closely related to SARS-CoV. In the case of SARS-CoV, a pandemic occurred in 2002/2003 with more than 8.000 people in about 30 countries on six continents. However, since 2004, SARS-CoV-1 has not been detected in humans. In the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has been known since 2012, all cases to date have been associated with the Arabian Peninsula or neighboring countries, either directly or through another patient.

How is SARS-CoV-2 structured?

SARS-CoV-2 is composed of four structural protein types: S (spike), M (membrane), E (envelope) and N (nucleocapsid). The nucleocapsid protein surrounds the pathogen's single-stranded RNA genome. The envelope of the virus is a lipid bilayer into which various structural proteins are inserted. In addition to the spike protein, these include a membrane protein and an envelope protein.

Infections coronavirus pz pharmaceutical newspaper

How SARS-CoV-2 gets into human cells?

The viruses infect human cells via their S protein, which binds to ACE-2. This is a transmembrane receptor that occurs in high density in the respiratory tract, intestine, vascular cells, kidney and heart muscle, among other places. After receptor binding, the virus enters the cytoplasm through fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, aided by acid-dependent proteolytic cleavage of the S protein by TMPRRS2, cathepsin or another protease.

How is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted?

Based on current knowledge, transmission in the general population occurs primarily through respiratory ingestion of virus-containing droplets or aerosols. These occur, for example, when you breathe, speak, cough or sneeze. Smear infection cannot be ruled out, especially in the direct vicinity of an infected person. Propagating SARS-CoV-2 viruses can remain infectious on surfaces for some time under laboratory conditions.

Which infection protection measures are useful?

According to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the most important measures in the general population include reducing contact, following the AHA+L rules – i.e., keeping your distance, observing hygiene, wearing masks in everyday life and ventilating – and staying at home in the event of acute respiratory symptoms.

Which masks are suitable for protection against infection?

According to the RKI, both a medical nasal shield (MNS), also called a surgical mask, and an FFP-2 mask are suitable for reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in everyday use. The MNS, which is familiar from the operating room, is primarily used to protect others. Is primarily intended to prevent the spread of droplets into the environment by the wearer. FFP2 masks have a higher filtration efficiency and, provided they fit correctly, are intended to provide self-protection in addition to external protection.

Which hand disinfectants are effective against coronaviruses??

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the enveloped viruses. Products declared as "limited virucidal" (effective against enveloped viruses), "limited virucidal PLUS" (effective against enveloped viruses and additionally against adeno-, noro- and rotaviruses) and "virucidal" (effective against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses) are suitable for hand disinfection.

How reliable are rapid antigen tests?

Rapid antigen tests detecting acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 differed significantly in quality. This is shown by an analysis of 122 tests conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Institute at the end of 2021. However, the vast majority are reliable. The results are clearly presented in tables in the journal "Eurosurveillance. The Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices also maintains a list of rapid antigen tests that, according to the manufacturer, meet the minimum criteria set by PEI and RKI and are reimbursable under the Coronavirus Test Regulation.

How does SARS-CoV-2 mutate?

Errors (mutations) can occur during any replication process, i.e., when the RNA genome is copied. If they have a favorable effect on the spread of the virus, they are selected for. That is, the mutant can then prevail against other forms of the virus. Variants are said to occur when a set of specific mutations is maintained across multiple replication cycles.

What are virus variants of concern (VOCs)??

Variants of concern (VOC) are variants of SARS-CoV-2 that are relevantly different from conventional virus variants in terms of transmissibility or virulence or immune response in recovered or vaccinated individuals.

Which VOCs are currently known?

The World Health Organization (WHO) currently lists the following VOCs: Alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), delta (B.1.617.2) and Omikron (B.1.1.529) (as of 1.2.2022). Data on the occurrence of variants of concern in Germany is made available by the RKI every Thursday in the detailed weekly report on Covid-19.

What Covid-19 stands for? The acronym "Covid-19" stands for COronaVIrus Disease-2019. Thus refers to the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.

What symptoms can occur with Covid-19?

Covid-19 is an extremely heterogeneous disease in terms of the spectrum of severity, there can be asymptomatic infections to severe pneumonias with lung failure and death. The disease can manifest itself not only in the lungs, but also in other organs such as kidney, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract or brain.

What Covid 19 symptoms are most common?

Among the symptoms most frequently recorded in the German reporting system (as of 23.11.2021), according to the RKI, include cough (42 percent), fever (26 percent), cold (29 percent), and loss of smell and taste (19 percent).

Which groups are at increased risk for severe courses of disease?

Severe courses can in principle also occur in persons without known previous disease and in younger persons. With some groups of persons according to RKI more frequently severe disease courses are observed. 35) People as well as pregnant women. People with Down syndrome.

In addition, this includes people with pre-existing conditions such as:

– diseases of the cardiovascular system – chronic lung diseases – chronic kidney and liver diseases – neurological and psychiatric diseases – diabetes mellitus – cancer diseases – weakened immune system

For what percentage of those infected is the disease fatal??

Overall, according to the RKI, 1.8 percent (as of 23.11.2021) of all persons for whom confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were transmitted in Germany died in association with covid-19 disease.

What is Long Covid?

Long Covid refers to longer-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. According to the RKI, these include impairments of physical and mental health that are related to a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and negatively affect functioning in daily life and quality of life.

Since very different symptoms are reported, which can occur alone or in combination and can vary in duration, it is not yet possible to define a uniform clinical picture. Possible symptoms include, for example, fatigue, exhaustion and limited resilience, shortness of breath, concentration and memory problems, sleep disturbances, muscle weakness and pain, and psychological problems.

The German S1 guideline on post-COVID/long-COVID defines long covid as symptoms that persist for longer than four weeks after infection or are new onset. Post covid syndrome, on the other hand, occurs when the symptoms persist for more than twelve weeks after the infection and cannot be explained in any other way.

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