Infectious diseases types symptoms and treatment

Most common infectious diseases: Examples and symptomsYou too may be asking yourself which infectious diseases are most common worldwide. A look at the statistics reveals the answer. Infectious disease world statistics ranked malaria first in 2018.
228.000.000 cases were attributable to this infectious disease alone. Malaria is accompanied by pronounced pain in the limbs, headache and fever. This is followed by tuberculosis with 10.000.000 diseases. Patients with tuberculosis mainly notice a loss of weight, cough and fatigue. Mumps takes third place with 499.512 infections. Classically, there is swelling in the area of the cheeks and throat, as well as fever.

The following infectious diseases occupy the following ranks:

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What are the bacterial infectious diseases??

Bacteria are often involved in an infectious disease. Staphylococci and Salmonella are common offenders. While salmonellae cause so-called salmonellosis (food poisoning), staphylococci are associated with sepsis (blood poisoning). In addition, bacteria can cause serious diseases such as tuberculosis. Urinary tract infections, which incidentally are the most common infectious diseases in women, are also caused by bacteria.

Scarlet fever can also be caused by bacteria. Both bacteria and viruses play a role in pneumonia and diarrheal diseases.

Infectious diseases: Children are frequent targets

Infectious agents have a particularly easy time of it with children. Since young children in particular frequently touch body orifices such as the nose or mouth, pathogens can enter the body unnoticed. Thorough hand washing is also not yet widely practiced at a certain age. Because certain pathogens use objects to spread, they have an easy time in daycare centers and schools. Contact with an object previously touched by a sick child also provides numerous opportunities for the pathogen to enter the organism. Body fluids are not always needed for transmission. In addition to spread by droplet infection and smear infection, skin contact is sometimes sufficient, as with scabies.

Because children have close contact when playing and romping around, infectious diseases are a particular ie for them.

Among unvaccinated children, the following infectious diseases are common:

Parents usually receive information about it when an infectious disease has broken out in a facility the child attends. After that it is important to observe the offspring closely. If specific symptoms develop, the pediatrician should be consulted.

Infectious diseases in nursing care

Infectious diseases are a major challenge in nursing care. Since infectious diseases are easily transmissible by bacteria or viruses, here
strict hygiene measures are adhered to. In addition to regular disinfection of hands. surfaces, it may also be advisable for nurses to wear protective clothing. In the case of very contagious variants, measures to prevent infectious diseases are absolutely necessary. Isolation of infected persons. Contact persons is then often practiced.

Time and again, rotavirus in particular makes rapid action necessary. This is an infectious disease caused by rotaviruses. Nurses are then often faced with the task of isolating entire wards or denying access to visitors. All these measures are strenuous. Require redesign of care routine as well as additional resources. People in need of care can be significantly more susceptible to infectious diseases depending on their illness, health status or age. This is why hygiene is particularly important in everyday care.

More protection through care aids

If a person in need of care has a care degree, he or she is generally entitled to free care aids such as mouth guards, disinfectants or gloves.

The new infectious disease: COVID-19

With increasing research, conurbations and penetration of previously unknown areas, the number of infectious diseases is also increasing. As of 2019, COVID-19 is one of them. Infectious disease is a special challenge for the health care system. Not infrequently, the comparison is made between the flu. However, COVID-19 is considered more dangerous. On the one hand, because a higher mortality rate is associated with the disease and, on the other hand, because the risk of severe courses is higher. Last but not least COVID-19 more contagious than a flu virus.

Corona in nursing homes

Nursing homes may be at their breaking point in light of the Corona epidemic. It is not uncommon for nursing homes to have a shortage of nursing staff. If some of the nursing staff falls ill, the daily care of the home residents can become a problem.

In addition, there is the risk here that patients become infected more quickly. People with dementia, for example, cannot always adhere to the specified hygiene regulations. This can trigger new chains of infection.

The primary goal here is also to prevent transmission. Strict hygiene regulations. Regular testing should help.

Other common diseases of persons in need of care

Avoiding infectious diseases – tips for prevention

No matter what infectious diseases are involved, hygiene always offers the best protection against transmission. An ordinary Coughing and sneezing etiquette, primarily in the elbows, and regular hand washing are proven methods. If a case of an infectious disease is already known in your environment, it should be responded to in a very concrete way. Appropriate measures must be taken for containment. If there is an infestation of scabies in a nursery school, for example, the cuddle corner should be closed and textiles washed in hot water.

Information sharing is especially important when it comes to infectious diseases. As a result, contact persons and the wider environment are alerted and can pay specific attention to possible symptoms.

In addition, the legislature has taken measures to keep the number of infectious diseases as low as possible.

Law for the prevention and control of infectious diseases

The Act on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Humans aims to prevent transmissible diseases. In addition, this should ensure early detection. A prevention of further spread can be achieved.

The law provides an overview of reportable infectious diseases, measures to prevent infectious diseases, and control of communicable diseases. Also an infection protection with certain mechanisms, enterprises and persons is brought up for discussion.

Good to know! There is a compensation according to the law for prevention. Combating infectious diseases. This comes into consideration, for example, if you are subject to a quarantine due to the Infection Protection Act and thus suffer a loss of earnings.

Notifiable infectious diseases

If you're looking for an answer to the question, "What are the infectious diseases?" you'll automatically come across reportable infectious diseases.

The law stipulates that a suspicion, the illness as well as death in connection with certain diseases must be reported.

Notification by name must be made in the case of:

– Botulism – cholera – diphtheria – human spongiform encephalopathy – acute viral hepatitis – enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) – viral hemorrhagic fever – pertussis – measles – meningococcal meningitis or sepsis – anthrax – mumps – plague – poliomyelitis – rubella, Rubella embryopathy – Rabies – Typhoid abdominalis or paratyphoid – Chickenpox – Zoonotic influenza – Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)

Infectious diseases: Treatment

Various measures and drugs are used in the treatment of an infectious disease. Antivirals can help with viral infections. Infectious diseases involving bacteria can be treated with antibiotics. Antifungals are considered when fungi cause the disease. Treatment of infectious diseases is very individual, depending on the state of health and type of pathogens. For rare diseases, tropical medicine can also be helpful.

FAQ: Questions and answers about infectious diseases

– What are typical childhood infectious diseases?

Typical infectious diseases in children include measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.

The most common infectious diseases are malaria, tuberculosis and mumps.

A bacterial infection is often accompanied by weakness and fever.

Zika, Ebola, HIV/Aids are serious infectious diseases.

In the case of indirect transmission, infection occurs by means of live or dead intermediate carriers. These can be healthy people or also objects, air or dust.

There are different pathogens that can cause an infectious disease. Bacteria, viruses and fungi are particularly popular.

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