Schizophrenia causes symptoms types studysmarter

SchizophreniaPeople suffering from schizophrenia hear voices that are not real and react extremely to people around them. Symptoms and behaviors like these are to blame for the fact that schizophrenia remains a disease loaded with prejudice to this day.

Schizophrenia – Definition

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, in which the thoughts and perceptions of the affected persons are altered. This disturbance of thinking and feeling can lead to loss of reality, delusions, and delusions.

With a schizophrenic illness, one's own feelings, speech and experience differ from the feelings of other people. As a result, it is usually difficult for those with the condition to notice and accept their problems.

Schizophrenia arises from Metabolic disorder of the brain. In the process, certain messenger substances are increasingly. Others, on the other hand, reduce the risk of.

Approximately one percent of the population suffers from a mental disorder at least once in the course of their livesschizophrenic psychosis. The disease usually occurs between puberty and 30 years of age. age on. The causes are not yet clearly clarified, but presumably such a psychosis arises from the Interaction of various factors. These include, but are not limited to, a genetic predisposition (disposition) or a disturbance in brain development during or after birth. Also stressful events in the life of the affected person can lead to a schizophrenic psychosis.

Psychoses are mental illnesses. Patients perceive reality in an altered way.

Schizophrenia (ancient Greek σχίζειν s'chizein = to split, cleave, fragment and φρήν phrēn = mind, soul, spirit, diaphragm) isno personality split. This term is often used incorrectly, although the two diseases are not related to each other. The splitting of the mind, to which the Greek meaning refers, describes the splitting into the actual reality and the reality perceived by affected persons. The clinical picture of split personality is called dissociative identity disorder.

Course of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia usually progresses in phases of varying length, which usually follow one another. However, the transition between the respective phases can also overlap. Each phase is characterized by different features.

Prodromal Phase

A schizophrenic course of illness begins with the prodromal phase. It precedes the acute phase. Often referred to as the "premonitory phase" denotes. drug abuse, among other things, can be the cause for triggering the prodromal phase. Symptoms that may occur here are:

– A marked deterioration in the usual level of performance – social isolation or withdrawal – usually pronounced impairments in occupation, household or education – disconcerting behavior (such as littering, hoarding of rotten food, disinhibited appearance) – blunted, flattened emotional expression – speech becomes digressive, vague, overly precise, circumstantial or figurative – peculiar, bizarre ideas or so-called magical thinking – the feeling of being influenced or being able to influence others and – unusual perceptual experiences.

At magical thinking is understood to mean that affected persons make illogical connections in which they firmly believe. A typical example of magical thinking is certain words that sufferers do not say because they believe that otherwise a misfortune will happen. The transition between the first. The second phase often occurs fluidly. The acute phase is the phase in which the symptoms are most pronounced. It can also be triggered by an upset or by substance abuse. The acute phase contains at least one of the following features:

– Bizarre perceptions (absurd and without a possible real basis) – body-related, size, religious, nihilistic (i.e., denial of all positive approaches) or other delusional phenomena – persecutory and jealous delusions combined with hallucinations – hearing voices – scattered or illogical thinking – delusional phenomena or hallucinations – catatonic or grossly disorganized behavior.

A catatonic behavior refers to a conspicuous disturbance of the movements and motor functions by unnatural and strongly cramped body postures.

Residual phase

The last phase is called the residual phase. It follows the active phase of the disease (also called acute phase). In the residual phase, the symptoms begin to subside. Two or more symptoms from the prodromal phase occur.

Schizophrenia – signs and symptoms

Symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two types: There are the Positive symptoms and the Negative symptoms. They differ primarily in Type of drive(increase or inhibition).

The Positive symptomsor alsoPlus symptomatology summarizes various symptoms that can occur in schizophrenia and are characterized by exaggerationsand/or strong misinterpretations of the normal experience are characterized.

The Negative Symptomatologyor alsoMinus symptomatology describes symptoms that are caused by Degradation, diminishment, and impoverishmentof mental characteristics of a person are characterized.

Both positive and negative symptoms are manifested by certain behaviors or sensations. In the following table you can get to know the differences in more detail:

(changes in behavior or thinking)

(loss of functional ability)

– Hallucinations – hearing, seeing or feeling something that is not real – Delusions – difficulty distinguishing real from unreal experiences – Thought disorders – difficulty organizing thoughts – Agitation – increased tension and easier irritability

– Drive fatigue or lack of initiative – lack of motivation to do anything – social withdrawal/depression – listlessness – feelings of emptiness and lack of drive – lack of emotional response – lack of normal signs of emotion (decreased facial expressions)

The symptoms of negative symptoms can, however, also be related to another illness, such as. B. a depression, indicate. A medical professional should always be consulted for diagnosis.

Schizophrenia – Causes

A schizophrenia usually arises from the Interactiondifferent causes. This is mainly due to factors such as Attachment (the genetic predisposition) and Environment (such as the social environment) play a role. Causes include:

– heredity – life events that affected persons can no longer cope with – drug use – changes in brain structure – neurotransmitters: in schizophrenic persons, an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine can be detected and other neurotransmitter systems (e.g., the social environment) also play a role. B. the serotonin system) seem to play a role in the disorder.

Is schizophrenia hereditary?

The geneticpredisposition (disposition)is of great importance in schizophrenia. The risk of developing the disease in children whose parents are/were already ill increases by the20-fold. In monozygotic twins, the probability that the other twin will also be affected is 50%.

In the figure you can see how decisive heredity is in schizophrenic psychosis. As you can see, the risk increases if, for example, an uncle or aunt has schizophrenia.

In the case of ill parents or siblings it is even higher. If both parents are affected, the risk of developing schizophrenia is almost 40%. In monozygotic twins the risk is higher with ca. 45 % highest.

Figure 1: Statistics on the risk of schizophrenia based on the degree of relationshipSource:

Atidentical twins (twins that have developed from a single egg cell) is also called monozygoticTwins. Fraternal twins (twins that have developed from two different oocytes) are also called dizygote called twins.

Schizophrenia – Types

Schizophrenia is differentiated into three subtypes:

– paranoid schizophrenia – hebephrenic schizophrenia – catatonic schizophrenia

This distinction depends on the predominant symptoms in the acute phase. However, typical symptoms of one type also occur in patients who also have symptoms of another type. Thus, a clear classification of patients into one of the three subtypes is not always possible.

Paranoid schizophrenia

Paranoid schizophrenia is among the most common type of schizophrenic psychosis. The main symptoms in the acute phase are delusions and hallucinations. Examples of how paranoid schizophrenia manifests itself are:

The persecutory delusionSufferers are convinced that they are being persecuted by a person or an organization. You are afraid of being permanently monitored and tapped The relationship delusion: Sufferers believe that actions or statements of a particular person are directed at them (such as a death message through a normal black coat) Auditory hallucinationsThe patients hear for example. voices that do not exist in reality. The voices can be friendly, but often they can be threatening, using z. B. Giving orders or calling the person names.

Hebephrenic schizophrenia

In this form, primarily the thinking, emotions and drive of the affected person are strongly affected. Thinking seems incoherent and illogical. Hebephrenic schizophrenia also has an effect on speech: some patients talk a lot and without context, such as in fragments of words or with incomplete sentence structure. In addition, affected persons often behave without distance. Exhibit inappropriate behavior. They also find it difficult to maintain the personal boundaries of those around them. An example of this is the following:

Affected persons sometimes laugh while telling that they are very unhappy at the moment. In acute phases, it can be either euphoric (manic) or very depressed (depressive).

Thus an alternation betweenmanic and depressive phases can lead to the disorder with the symptoms of abipolar disorder is confused. Again, symptoms alternate between Extreme. This makes it problematic to distinguish between the two illnesses when making a diagnosis.

One bipolar disorder is a mental illness, in which there are strong mood swings between two opposite extreme phases: the high phase (mania)and the low phase (depression).

Catatonic schizophrenia

Catatonic schizophrenia is a psychomotor disorder. Affected individuals may adopt a strange posture or move in a strange way. They have no control over their movements. This can be recognized, for example, by the following:

Affected individuals bend their bodies or walk around aimlessly. At this point, sufferers are highly agitated. They often repeat what someone else says.

Also possible Rigidity (stupor). Sufferers then often remain in an unusual position for hours on end. Although they are awake, they do not react or speak in this state. Catatonic schizophrenia is rare nowadays.

Is schizophrenia curable?

Schizophrenia is an incurable disease. However, it can be treated by learning to control its symptoms and thereby also avoid relapses.

On the one hand, schizophrenia can be called a can be treated with medicationtreat. So-called neuroleptics are used, which balance the imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain.

On the other handPsychotherapy proven to be an effective treatment method. It is intended to help strengthen the personality and help develop self-help strategies and social skills. As a result, sufferers learn, Early warning symptomswhich can significantly reduce the relapse rate of schizophrenia. These measures are aimed at alleviating the symptoms of the disease in order to enable the affected person to lead a self-determined life.

Schizophrenia – Life Expectancy

On average, people with schizophrenia die up to 30 years earlierthan mentally healthy people. The causes of death are mostly diseases that are common in our society, such as heart attack, stroke or lung cancer. Only, on average, they occur much earlier than in mentally healthy people.

This is mainly due to theunhealthier lifestyle of mentally ill patients together: Around two-thirds of schizophrenia sufferers, for example, smoke. Lack of exercise or poor diet also play a role.

However, the main reason for shorter life expectancy is thought to be that, among other things, tumors and heart disease are detected later in schizophrenics. Affected people either go to the doctor less often or they often describe their symptoms differently due to altered perception, making it difficult for the doctor to diagnose them. Assessment. evaluation of symptoms. Roughly, the difference is that an Schizophreniadue to signs of illness of theschizophrenic psychosis(z. B. hallucinations and delusions).

The schizoaffective disorder is a combination of two clinical pictures. It manifests itself through symptoms of the schizophrenic psychosis, but also signs of a affective disorder,such as mood swings (as in bipolar disorder).

You can read more about schizoaffective disorder in our explanation "Affective disorder" learn.

Schizophrenia – The most important things

– Schizophrenia is an mental disorder. In this disease there is a strong change of thoughts. The perceptions of affected persons before. Symptomsof schizophrenia are classified into so-calledPositive symptoms(hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, agitation) andNegative symptoms (drive fatigue or lack of initiative, social withdrawal/depression, apathy, lack of emotional response) are distinguished. – A schizophrenia usually arises from the Interplay of different aspects. These include: Heredity, susceptibility (brain trauma, traumatic childhood experiences, stress), drug use, changes in brain structure or neurotransmitters. Types of schizophrenia:Paranoid schizophrenia, hebephrenic schizophrenia, and catatonic schizophrenia.


What is the cause of schizophrenia?

The causes of schizophrenia are manifold. These include: Heredity, susceptibility (brain trauma, traumatic childhood experiences, stress), drug use can be a trigger of schizophrenia, changes in brain structure or neurotransmitters.

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