In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) there is a loss of central visual acuity. The term macula comes from Latin and refers to the center of the retina, the area of sharpest vision that is only 2 square millimeters in size. It is also known as a "yellow spot" Designated. The majority of the most sensitive sensory cells of the eye, the so-called cones, are located in this area. Through these cells, the person can see colors. Perceiving sharp images. In the process, the light-sensitive parts are constantly consumed, repelled, disintegrated and transported away by the action of the light of the cones. At the same time new membrane discs grow back. This normal metabolic process is disturbed with increasing age and can lead to AMD.
AMD is the most common cause of severe visual impairment in people over the age of 50. It affects about. 30 % of 75-85 year olds. Ca. 2 million people in Germany suffer from AMD. With the aging of society, the absolute number of people with the disease increases year after year.
This film gives an impression of how a person with age-related macular degeneration perceives an everyday situation:
Glaucoma is damage to the optic nerve as a result of increased intraocular prere or circulatory disorders. In Germany are knowingly about 800.000 people suffering from glaucoma. The number of unreported cases is suspected to be even higher. About 3 million people have already been diagnosed with high intraocular prere. They are thus considered to be at risk. If glaucoma is not treated, sooner or later it leads to blindness, which can no longer be improved.
Further information on glaucoma
This film gives an impression of how a patient with glaucoma perceives an everyday situation:
Diabetic retinopathy is a secondary disease of the so-called diabetes, diabetes mellitus. It is due to a functional disorder of the pancreas. Diabetic retinopathy usually develops very slowly. In contrast, retinopathy develops quickly in youngsters suffering from diabetes. In Germany, more than 1 million diabetics suffer from diabetic retinopathy.
This film gives an impression of how a patient with diabetic retinal disease perceives an everyday situation:
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)
Retinitis Pigmentosa (more correctly: Retinopathia Pigmentosa) is a group of hereditary eye diseases in which the retina dies. In the process, the retinal cells die off step by step. As a rule, the rods first, located in the periphery of the retina. The cones in the center of the macula are preserved.
The consequences are night blindness, a reduction in visual acuity and visual field restrictions. The field of vision is the area that can be surveyed at one time without moving the eye or head. The field of vision of the affected person becomes more and more limited from the outside until only a small central visual nerve remains. This visual test is then called "tunnel vision" or "tube vision". The affected person only sees objects that he looks at directly. he cannot recognize objects outside the line of sight. Despite preserved central visual acuity, independent orientation is no longer possible due to the restriction of the visual field. Therefore, it may happen that affected people are called malingerers. On the one hand they use the blind long stick to orientate themselves, but on the other hand they read the newspaper without glasses. However, this disease can lead to blindness in severe cases.
In Germany suffer about 30.000 to 40.000 people suffer from the disease, and around 3 million people worldwide.
This film gives an impression of how a patient with retinitis pigmentosa perceives an everyday situation.
The cataract is a clouding of the originally clear eye lens. Due to the opacity, the incident light rays scatter. This means that they are hardly let through and only a few reach the retina. It comes to a reduced visual performance. The cataract can be easily corrected by surgery. In Germany, 600.000 people operated.
This film gives an impression of how a patient with cataract perceives an everyday situation:
In retinal detachment, the light-sensitive layer of the retina detaches from its nourishing layer, the choroid. Where the layer lifts off, the sensory cells are no longer supplied with oxygen and nutrients. the cells die off.
There is a considerable loss of vision. If not treated quickly, retinal detachment leads to blindness. In Germany, about 8.000 people suffered retinal detachment. Particularly affected are highly myopic persons from 6 diopters and people between 50 and 70 years of age.