Thrombosis – Recognizing Symptoms / SignsThe leg swells, the skin tightens and shows a bluish discoloration: these complaints are among the serious symptoms of thrombosis. Thrombosis is one of the typical diseases in old age, as the risk of thrombosis increases with years of life. In order to recognize thrombosis in time and treat it as quickly as possible, it is important to know the typical signs of thrombosis. But how do you actually recognize a thrombosis??
care.de informs you about the typical symptoms of thrombosis and explains how thrombosis can make itself felt.
Table of Contents
Thrombus: symptoms – How to recognize a thrombosis?
Pain, swelling and a bluish discolored, shiny skin – These are the typical symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis in the leg. However, thrombosis can manifest itself in several ways. This depends mainly on how large the blood clot is and what form of thrombosis is present. Often a thrombosis runs completely unnoticed. Is only recognized by a secondary symptom such as pulmonary embolism.
Signs of thrombosis: pain
Basically, pain is a symptom of thrombosis, which all forms have in common. In the case of anal thrombosis, for example, the affected person feels pain in the buttocks. Severe headache is also one of the most common symptoms of cerebral venous thrombosis. Beginning less pronounced. Only gets stronger with time. Sometimes the disease progresses without pain. Is only noticeable by a small feeling of prere.
Other symptoms: thrombosis
Apart from the pain of thrombosis, other typical signs of thrombosis may include. These depend on which blood vessel (artery or vein) is affected.
Arterial thrombosis: (1)
– Disturbances of consciousness – Difficulty breathing – Drawing pain – Dizziness – Speech and visual disturbances – Feeling of prere in the chest
Venous thrombosis: (2) (3)
Depending on whether the thrombus is located in the deep or superficial venous system, the symptoms differ:
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Superficial venous thrombosis (OVT)
Pain (like sore muscles) Sharp, burning pain Skin change (shiny, pale, bluish-red discoloration) Reddish strand on the skin "Warning veins" (protruding veins) Redness of the affected tie Swelling of the affected area Feeling of warmth Feeling of heaviness and warmth of the extremity
Although there may be other causes behind all the symptoms mentioned, these symptoms are characteristic of a thrombotic disease. In order to prevent life-threatening consequences and complications of thrombosis, the following applies: Talk to your doctor as soon as possible if you recognize such signs of thrombosis.
Most frequently, thromboses develop in the Leg, Arm or in the Knee. In addition, in the course of Corona vaccinations with the active ingredient AstraZeneca, there was an increased incidence of Cerebral vein thrombosis. Therefore puts care.The following are the typical symptoms for the types that.
Leg vein thrombosis: symptoms
Among all thrombosis diseases in most cases a Leg vein thrombosis diagnosed. Leg vein thrombosis can occur as a result of surgery or prolonged confinement to bed. Patients should then pay attention to the following venous thrombosis symptoms that can be seen on the leg:
– Pain in the calf (often sudden and increasing) – Swelling in the lower or upper leg, which tends to get better overnight – Feeling of heaviness in the leg – Feeling of warmth in the leg – Feeling of tension in the leg – Slight faintness, malaise – Breathing difficulties
A typical feature of thrombosis of the leg veins is that these symptoms usually improve or even disappear completely with movement.
Thrombosis prere points
If deep vein thrombosis is suspected, the physician may test various thrombosis prere points in the patient as part of his or her clinical examination:
Clinical sign of thrombosis Execution
Payr sign Pain in the foot when prere is applied to the sole of the foot with two fingers. Homans sign Pain in the calf when the leg is stretched and bent in a quick movement towards the back of the foot. Meyer sign Pain when prere is applied to the inside of the lower leg (at Meyer's prere points)
If these thrombosis signs are positive, that is, if the patient feels pain during execution, the result may indicate thrombosis. However, the test is by no means a reliable diagnosis.
If you suspect thrombosis, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. If your family doctor is not available, you can call the medical on-call service on 116 117 or go to the emergency room of a clinic. Because if deep vein thrombosis (TBVT / DVT for short) is left untreated, it can have serious consequences. In addition to the typical signs of thrombosis, do you suffer at the same time from Breathing difficulties, you should call 911 for safety. There is a possibility of Pulmonary embolism – and these must be treated as quickly as possible. Keep your upper body elevated to help you breathe until the emergency physician arrives. (4)
Arm vein thrombosis: symptoms
In the case of a Arm vein thrombosis the above-mentioned signs of leg vein thrombosis appear on the arm. In the case of thrombosis in the shoulder or neck area, neurological deficits (e.g. paralysis) can even occur because the blocked vein presses on the nerve pathways.
Thrombosis in the knee: symptoms
A Thrombosis in the knee often occurs due to long periods of sitting still (for example, in the car or on an airplane). Especially people with a genetic predisposition or with phlebitis are at risk here. Prolonged bed rest can also increase the risk of thrombosis in the knee.
Cerebral vein thrombosis: symptoms& Signs
In case of a Cerebral vein thrombosis a blood clot closes a vein in the brain, so that the intracranial prere increases. Possible causes of thrombosis in the head include spreading infections or inflammation in the area of the head (face, ears). Blood clotting disorders can also be among the causes of cerebral venous thrombosis.
Much rarer to develop cerebral venous thrombosis after vaccination against Covid 19. However, there are cases when antibodies against blood platelets have developed as a result of vaccination. Cerebral venous thrombosis usually manifests itself in persistent or recurrent headaches, often accompanied by neurological symptoms such as epileptic seizures, paralysis, or speech and visual disturbances.
A thrombosis disease can also be visible from the outside. This is how skin changes frequently occur, especially in the case of venous thrombosis. For example, deep vein thrombosis is often accompanied by a reddish-bluish discoloration of the affected area(s). In addition, bruising may occur in the event of thrombosis. The veins are clearly visible below the surface of the skin. In addition, there may be swelling of the affected tie.
Varicose veins or thrombosis?
Both varicose veins and thrombosis are venous diseases that mostly occur on the legs. Nevertheless, they are two different diseases with different manifestations, symptoms and risks. Thus, varicose veins can rather be understood as a cause of thrombosis.
When venous valves no longer close completely, causing blood to flow in the wrong direction, varicose veins develop. Varicose veins are permanently dilated veins of the superficial venous system in the body. They occur most frequently on the calves or inner sides of the legs. Varicose veins are tortuous, protrude somewhat and are visible by a bluish discoloration. The so-called varices cause no or only minor symptoms, especially at the beginning. They are rather seen as a cosmetic problem. But in fact, patients with varicose veins have an increased risk of developing thrombosis. An open leg, the so-called ulcus cruris, is also one of the possible consequences of untreated varicose veins. (5)
In the treatment of a Ulcus cruris (ulcer on the lower leg), comprehensive wound management is particularly important. To prevent the affected person's skin from coming into additional contact with pathogens such as bacteria during wound care, aids such as gloves and disinfectants can be helpful if necessary. If you have a recognized care degree, you are entitled to monthly so-called care aids for consumption, which are conveniently delivered to your home in the curabox, for example.
Thrombosis symptoms – what you should do now
If you have noticed the first signs of thrombosis, measures must be taken as soon as possible. Although a deep vein thrombosis does not have to cause a pulmonary embolism within a few minutes or an arterial thrombosis cause a heart attack, attention and caution are nevertheless required.
The first thing to do is to stay calm and notify your doctor. Discuss with him if you can still go to him yourself or if you need an ambulance if necessary. Until it arrives, there is little you can do yourself, but this little can help.
Immediate measures in case of symptoms of deep vein thrombosis
If you recognize signs of leg vein thrombosis, you can take initial measures yourself. To prevent the blood from pooling even more and the affected area from swelling further, the following steps can help:
– Keep the affected limb elevated. To support the return flow of blood in the veins. – Move the affected extremity as little as possible. – Do not cross your legs. – Avoid exertion.
In the event that you have already suffered from thrombosis, you can – Only in consultation with your doctor – Put on your individually fitted compression bandage or put on your compression stockings. If you were once prescribed heparin injections to reduce the risk of thrombosis, you can inject the drug into your abdominal wall. Heparin may help stop blood clot growth.
Individual causes of thrombosis cannot be prevented from the outset. For example, there are hereditary risk factors that favor thrombosis. Age also plays a decisive role. However, there are a few things you can do to keep your vessels healthy. These include: (3)
1. Move regularly. Also in the case of bedriddenness can be targeted Movement exercises help to counteract thrombosis. 2. Be sure to balanced diet and sufficient liquid. 3. Avoid smoking, being overweight and alcohol.
In case of thrombosis symptoms: test& Diagnosis
To make a definite diagnosis of thrombosis, your doctor will usually perform a series of tests or refer you to a specialist to do so. There are a variety of questions that the doctor may ask you.
In the following example, a thrombosis test is used to determine the clinical likelihood (KW) of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) raised. One point is awarded for each of the following nine statements: (6)
Clinical thrombosis symptoms Points
The patient suffers from an acute Cancer. 1 Legs are or have been recently paralyzed, respectively immobile. 1 The patient lay longer than three days in bed and/or had a Operation (no longer than three months ago). 1 It shows Swelling and / or Hardening along the deep veins. 1 The whole leg is swollen. 1 There is a Lower leg swelling of more than three centimeters compared to the unaffected leg. 1 There is a compressible edema (swelling) on the affected leg. 1 There have been Collateral veins (bypass veins) formed. 1 The patient already had early deep vein thrombosis. 1
So the maximum for this test would be nine points possible. Finally, the doctor asks how likely is another explanation for the symptoms present. If something is found, two points are deducted. If the final result of the test is then less than two points, the probability of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is rather low. If the result is above two points, a deep vein thrombosis can be amed. (7)
A high value of clinical probability (KW value above two points) will always lead to further diagnostics. In many cases, the physician orders a blood test if the suspicion of thrombosis is confirmed. The so-called D-dimers are determined. These substances are formed and show up in the blood when clotting has occurred somewhere in the blood vessels. D-dimers are so-called biomarkers. Their concentration in the blood indicates a thrombosis. A normal adult usually has D-dimer levels of less than 500 nanograms per milliliter in blood plasma. In the case of thrombosis, the values are above this limit. (6)
In addition, ultrasound examinations (compression sonographies) and vascular imaging (phlebographies) are used to diagnose thrombosis.
The D-dimer test becomes less meaningful at the age of 50 years and older, because higher D-dimer values are found in older people anyway. However, physicians have developed a formula that can increase diagnostic certainty even in older people. (6)
If the suspicion of thrombosis is confirmed after diagnosis and a test, your doctor will immediately prescribe medications that inhibit clotting. Anticoagulants make your blood more fluid. Prevent the formation of further thrombi. He will also apply a compression bandage to the affected limb to increase external prere on the veins. If necessary, further measures are then taken to dissolve the thrombus or remove it surgically. (6)
Thrombosis and anticoagulants
The administration of anticoagulants is not normally critical, since heparin is a substance produced naturally in the body and is usually very well tolerated. However, if a patient suffers from high blood prere or a coagulation disorder, the physician must always consider whether and in what dosage he can administer heparin. Monitoring of blood values is always necessary to check the extent to which the body is tolerating the anticoagulant medications.
Frequently asked questions
How to recognize a thrombosis?
Thrombosis is not always detected at all. Patients may not even notice that a blood clot has developed in their body. If the thrombus dissolves by itself, the thrombosis can remain completely unnoticed. However, there are also cases in which thrombosis is only detected by its sequelae (e.g. pulmonary embolism).
Basically, the symptoms of a thrombosis depend on its location and the size of the blood clot. Often, pain at the affected site can indicate thrombosis. In arterial thrombosis (thrombus in an artery), the pain tends to come on suddenly, while in venous thrombosis (blood clot in a vein), it increases in intensity over time.
Depending on the type of thrombosis, other symptoms are characteristic of a thrombotic disease:
– Drawing pain, even at rest – Tightness in the chest – Dizziness or impaired consciousness – Impaired vision and speech – Shortness of breath
Symptoms differ depending on whether the thrombosis is in the deep or superficial venous system:
Deep vein thrombosis:
– Drawing pain (like sore muscles) – Shiny, pale and bluish discolored skin – Swelling and feeling of warmth in the affected area – Feeling of prere and heaviness – Skin tension – Protruding veins ("warning veins")
Superficial venous thrombosis:
– Stinging, burning pain when prere is applied – Vein section shows red strand on the skin – Reddened skin and feeling of warmth
Although these typical signs of thrombosis can also be due to other causes, it is advisable to consult a doctor as soon as possible. If a thrombosis remains untreated, it can become life-threatening.
Does a thrombosis hurt?
This varies from case to case. For example, some thromboses proceed completely without symptoms, so that those affected do not even notice that a thrombus has formed in one of their blood vessels. Nevertheless, pain is one of the typical symptoms of all forms of thrombosis. While arterial thrombosis tends to cause a sudden pain, venous thrombosis causes a pulling pain (like sore muscles) that gets worse over time.
How venous thrombosis makes itself felt?
In venous thrombosis, a thrombus partially or completely occludes a vein. The deep leg veins are most frequently affected.
Venous thrombosis can manifest itself in different ways. It depends on which vein is affected and how large the blood clot is. The most common symptoms of venous thrombosis include:
– Swelling of the affected area, – Tense skin, – Feeling of prere and heaviness – Pulling pain similar to sore muscles, – Bluish discolored, shiny skin that feels warmer – Protruding veins
How to notice an arterial thrombosis?
If a thrombus forms in an artery, it is called an arterial thrombosis. In the case of arterial thrombosis, patients suddenly feel pain in the affected area. In addition, dizziness or impaired consciousness and impaired vision and speech may occur. Nevertheless, the symptoms differ and depend on where the thrombus is located and how large it is.