Tree diseases on the orchardAlso on an orchard trees are threatened by various diseases. We present the most common tree diseases in meadow orchards and give tips on how to care for the trees.
Whether it's adverse weather conditions or other organisms such as fungi and bacteria, there are many factors that can wreak havoc on trees in a meadow orchard. Fungal infestation in particular is feared by many fruit growers, as it often results in the death of the trees – and thus the loss of the harvest. The good news is that most fungal diseases of fruit trees can be prevented or minimized if they are detected early on.
We present the common tree diseases powdery mildew, fruit tree canker, monilia, pear lattice rust as well as apple and pear blight. Pear scab before. Give tips on how to fight it. Powdery mildew appears in spring. summer by a white coating on the leaves. Later, the leaves turn brown and dry up, the flowers die off. In the meadow orchard, apple trees are particularly affected by powdery mildew. The spread of apple powdery mildew is favored by dry, warm weather, which is why it is also called a fair-weather fungus.
If the apple tree is already infested, the corresponding shoots should be pruned about five centimeters into the healthy wood and then disposed of with the residual waste. Composting diseased shoots is not a good idea, because the fungal spores could spread further and infect new trees.
Noticeable change in trunk and branches due to fruit tree canker
In the case of fruit tree canker, dark, bulge-like growths form on the trunk and branches around the infected area. Although it is obviously not a cancer in the medical sense, the name has become common for this tree disease. From the fruit tree canker are often apple trees. Somewhat less frequently pear trees affected.
Once a tree is infected, unfortunately, the only countermeasure is radical pruning of the diseased area. If the tree disease is not contained, the entire tree may die. Good to know: Cut branches can release spores continuously, infecting more trees. Therefore, it is important not to destroy the severed parts of the tree in the orchard, if possible.
Monilia attacks flower or fruit
The fungal disease Monilia has two manifestations. Monilia fructigena leads to rotting on the infested fruit. Typical for fruit rot are whitish spots on a brownish discolored fruit. Monilia laxa is the so-called lace drought, in which flowers and shoots wither immediately after flowering. In the case of the tip drought, the fungus penetrates the plant via the blossom and causes its death.
Cherry trees as well as pear and apple trees are particularly susceptible to this tree disease. In both cases of Monilia, it is recommended to remove the affected shoots or. Generously remove fruit to prevent further spread of the fungal infection.
Tree infected with monilia and pear lattice rust.
Pear lattice rust – unfortunately hardly preventable
The so-called pear lattice rust also belongs to the conspicuous tree diseases on the meadow orchard. It shows itself by orange-red spots on the leaves. Small thickenings on the underside of the leaves. Pear rust spreads quickly. Therefore, it is not uncommon for scab to attack the entire tree.
Since pear lattice rust "hibernates" on juniper shrubs, corresponding shrubs should not be planted on or near the orchard as a preventive measure. However, the spores can fly up to 500 meters, so this measure is not so easy to implement. Finally, neighboring properties or public areas are also affected.
Scab on apple and pear trees
Scab is another widespread tree disease in orchards, especially on apple and pear trees. If a tree is infected by the scab fungus, dark green or brown spots appear on the leaves, which in the further course cover almost the entire leaf. As new spores are always formed, the fruits often also become diseased. Even if the scab on apples and pears is visually not very appealing, the fruits are still edible.
Apple scab or pear scab is favored by moisture, which is why this tree disease occurs more frequently in rainy regions and years. Orchard owners can prevent the disease by pruning apple and pear trees so that the branches do not grow too close together in the canopy. So the leaves can dry better after a rain shower -. This gives the scab fungus less of an attack surface. At the same time, autumn leaves should be thoroughly removed and covered in compost so that the fungal spores from the leaves do not re-infect the tree.