In active vaccination, the human body is confronted with pathogens. It should deal with the infectious disease in this way. However, this must be done as far as possible without side effects or often complicating symptoms of the disease. Therefore, it is not possible to vaccinate the unchanged, reproducible pathogens themselves. This would lead to severe infections. Instead of using germs, or their toxins (harmful substances produced by the pathogen), which are not capable of reproduction or only to a limited extent. Thus, although mild symptoms of illness may occur, especially after the administration of attenuated live pathogens. In general, however, vaccinations nowadays have few side effects.
Genuine vaccination complications must be distinguished from harmless side effects. Occur extremely infrequently and are covered by health care legislation when vaccinations are recommended by law.
Nowadays, vaccinations are carried out both with attenuated live pathogens and with killed pathogens or their toxins. If live vaccines are administered in quick succession, the success of the vaccination may be weakened or even fail to materialize. Therefore, these vaccines should be administered either simultaneously or after a certain time interval.
B) Live vaccines
– Yellow fever – Measles – Mumps – Rubella – Polio oral vaccination – Typhoid oral vaccination – Varicella
C) Inactivated vaccines
– Diphtheria – TBE – HIB – Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Influenza (flu) – Pertussis (whooping cough) – Tetanus (tetanus) – Typhoid injection vaccine
D) Passive vaccination
In the case of "passive vaccination are not injected with pathogens, but specific antibodies are transferred from donors. This can involve serum from animals of a different species (so-called. heterologous immunization), or to human serum (so-called. homologous immunization) act. For reasons of tolerability, almost only homologous antibody products are used nowadays. However, heterologous sera come z.B. still used after snake bite injuries.
The antibody sera (hyperimmunoglobulins) are freed from pathogens capable of reproduction by special manufacturing processes. Sterilization requirements are very strict so that no infectious diseases can be transmitted. Nevertheless, the discussion about the infection with HIV and hepatitis B viruses through blood products leads to uncertainty among patients and understandably also among long-distance travelers. However, one must distinguish between Fresh blood products, which cannot be freed from pathogens by sterilization procedures and Serum products, which are not infectious due to special manufacturing processes. Isolated HIV and hepatitis transmissions occurred only by fresh blood or blood coagulation preparations.
The treatment with immunoglobulins is caused by injections into the muscle. From there, the antibodies can take effect in about 1 – 2 days. The duration of Effectiveness Is five to eight weeks. The passively vaccinated person's own antibody formation is not stimulated. For this reason no permanent protection is achieved.
To prevent tetanus, passive vaccination is still frequently used after injuries when active vaccination protection is inadequate or questionable. In addition, passive immunization is still carried out against hepatitis A before long-distance travels.