Type 2 dia be tes diagnosis diabetesinformationsportal

The diagnosis of type 2 diabetesIn people with type 2 diabetes, the blood glucose level (blood glucose) is elevated. There are several ways to diagnose diabetes. The German and American Diabetes Societies name 4 methods for diagnosis:

– HbA1c value (long-term blood glucose value) – fasting blood glucose value – 2-hour blood glucose value after an oral glucose tolerance test with 75 grams of glucose (oGTT) – occasional blood glucose

Type 2 dia be tes diagnosis diabetesinformationsportal

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HbA1c value

The HbA1c value, also known as long-term blood glucose value, describes the average blood glucose concentration over the last 8 to 12 weeks. This value can be determined by a blood sample. Patients do not need to be fasting for this to occur.

If the HbA1c value is greater than or equal to 6.5 percent (48 mmol/mol), diabetes mellitus is present.

However, if the HbA1c value is below 5.7 percent (39 mmol/mol), the disease can be ruled out. If the HbA1c value lies between these limits, doctors carry out further measurements of the fasting blood glucose value and the oGTT 2-hour blood glucose value (oGTT = oral glucose tolerance test).

Fasting blood glucose value

Fasting blood glucose levels in venous plasma are determined by a blood draw in the morning, after a fasting period of at least 8 hours.

Diabetes mellitus is present when fasting blood glucose is 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or greater. A reading between 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l) and 125 mg/dl (6.9 mmol/l) indicates impaired fasting glucose tolerance, or Prediabetes called, before. For clarification, doctors usually do an oral glucose tolerance test.

Good to know:

An impaired fasting glucose tolerance, including Prediabetes is a possible precursor of diabetes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and numerous other diabetes societies set the threshold for impaired fasting glucose tolerance or prediabetes somewhat higher – at 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l).

Oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT)

The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) Is used to control blood glucose levels and is performed if diabetes mellitus is suspected. It shows how well the sugar from the food can be absorbed into the body cells. In a normal metabolic state, the intake of carbohydrates leads to an increase in blood glucose concentration, which triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin causes the absorption of sugar into the cells of the body, which rapidly lowers the blood sugar level. In type 2 diabetes, an insufficient amount of insulin is secreted from the pancreas, or the secreted insulin does not work properly on the body cells. This leads to a higher. Prolonged increase in blood sugar level.

– The oGTT takes place in a sitting or lying position. 8 to 12 hours before, do not take food and do not smoke. – 3 days before the oGTT is performed, a carbohydrate-rich diet should be aimed for (at least 150 grams of carbohydrates per day). – At the beginning of the test (time point 0), a pre-made glucose solution containing 75 grams of glucose is drunk within 5 minutes. During the 2-hour measurement period, blood is taken at 0 and 120 minutes to determine the blood glucose level.

Normal glucose tolerance is defined by a fasting blood glucose level (time 0) less than 100 mg/dl (less than 5.6 mmol/l) and an oGTT 2-hour blood glucose level less than 140 mg/dl (less than 7.8 mmol/l), both measured in venous plasma. Fasting blood glucose values greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or oGTT 2-hour values greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) indicate diabetes mellitus.

Individuals who have blood glucose levels above normal glucose tolerance but below diabetes diagnosis have an increased risk of developing diabetes. This transitional area is referred to as Prediabetes denotes and includes impaired fasting glucose (fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 100 mg/dl (greater than or equal to 5.6 mmol/l) and less than 126 mg/dl (less than 7.0 mmol/l)) and impaired glucose tolerance (2-hour oGTT greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl (greater than or equal to 7.8 mmol/l) and less than 200 mg/dl (less than 11.1 mmol/l)).

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