Vaccinations: everything about vaccination, vaccination recommendations& CostVaccinations protect against infectious diseases for which there are no or only limited treatment options. They prevent the spread of infection in the population and protect unborn children from being damaged by infections during pregnancy. The Permanent Vaccination Commission of the Robert Koch Institute (STIKO) is the expert committee that develops vaccination recommendations in accordance with the Infection Protection Act.
Parents should keep in mind that modern vaccines are well tolerated and usually do not pose a risk. Adverse drug reactions exist only in very rare cases.
Some vaccinations, such as those against polio, pertussis, and tetanus, need to be boostered in adolescents to maintain long-term protection. Young women are advised to get the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), which can later cause cervical cancer, at the age of 9 to 14 years. If it is not carried out by the age of 12. If the patient is not yet 18 years old, she should be given at least. Vaccination can be given after the child's 60th birthday.
It is also recommended that adults have their vaccinations checked every 10 years at the latest. Should new life circumstances arise, it can also be useful to protect yourself or others through vaccinations (e.g.B. in case of childbearing, chronic illness or a new job). Pregnancy can affect the health of mother. Seriously endanger child. In the course of pregnancy, there is a high risk of complications (z.B. pneumonia). In addition, true influenza during pregnancy can lead to growth retardation and miscarriage or preterm delivery.
Which vaccinations are necessary when?
The following graphic shows the STIKO vaccination calendar for standard vaccinations.
Which vaccinations are covered by the statutory health insurance and when??
The Act to Strengthen Competition in Statutory Health Insurance (GKV-WSG) has made vaccinations compulsory for statutory health insurers. Excluded are vaccinations for private trips abroad. Vaccinations, which are covered by the statutory health insurance:
In infants and children:
Diphtheria: epresents a dangerous disease with severe coughing attacks. Who and when: Children from the age of 2. Month of life. Effectiveness: 4 vaccinations: Month 2, 3, 4, 11-14, first booster vaccination at age 5-6 years, 2. booster vaccination 9-17 years.If the last vaccination was more than 10 years ago, a one-time booster is required. Disease of the respiratory tract. Meningitis. Who and when: children from the age of two months to four years. Effectiveness: The basic immunization consists of four partial vaccinations: The first vaccination is given from the end of the second month of life. The last partial vaccination in 11.-14. Month of life. A booster is not necessary. Possible risks and side effects: slight redness, swelling at the injection site, pain at the site of the injection, briefly swollen lymph nodes, skin rashes and flu-like symptoms.
Hepatitis B: leads to acute liver inflammation. Who and when: basic immunization of babies and toddlers from two months of age in four combination vaccinations. Effectiveness: the vaccine is administered three times to achieve full effect. Immunity lasts about 25 years. Vaccination for adults at increased risk. Possible risks and side effects: Pain at injection site and flu-like symptoms lasting one day.
Pertussis: refers to whooping cough and is considered a highly contagious infectious disease. Who and when: Babies from two months of age with quadruple vaccine. Effectiveness: protection lasts for about 10 to 20 years. Causing paralysis. Infest the entire cycle. Who and when: basic immunization of babies and toddlers from two months of age in four combination vaccinations. Efficacy: If basic immunization is lacking or incomplete, protection is refreshed. Possible risks and side effects: Dizziness, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fever, muscle aches, joint pain, headache, lightheadedness, irritability, insomnia
Measles: Can cause lung and brain infections. Who and when: combination vaccination for children 11 months and older in two vaccine doses. Effectiveness: Children can be effectively protected against measles by being vaccinated twice. A booster is not necessary. Possible risks and side effects: Redness or swelling at the injection site, swollen lymph nodes, increase in temperature, headache, faintness, gastrointestinal discomfort
Meningococcus: can cause meningitis or blood poisoning. Who and when: single vaccination for children 12 months and older. Efficacy: The need for a booster has not yet been established. Possible risks and side effects: Redness, swelling at the injection site, fever, headache, general feeling of illness, irritability , loss of appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, muscle or joint pain, pain in arms or legs
Mumps: can result in testicular, meningitis and cerebral inflammation. Who and when: Babies 11 and older. up to 14. Month of life as well as risk groups (especially people who are often surrounded by children). Efficacy: If needed, single vaccination for adults. Possible risks and side effects: Redness, swelling and pain at the vaccination site, fever, faintness, malaise, rash
Pneumococcal: can cause meningitis, pneumonia and middle ear infections. Who and when: At ages 2, 3, and 4, and between 11 months of age. until 14. Month of life. Repeat vaccination for persons over 60 years of age and in at-risk groups (for example, immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases). Effectiveness: booster is generally not necessary. Pneumococcal vaccination should be boostered every five to six years only if certain pre-existing conditions. Possible risks and side effects: Redness, swelling, and pain at the vaccination site, fever, headache, muscle or joint pain
Rubella: can lead to malformations in the unborn child during pregnancy. Who and when: combination vaccination from eleven months in two vaccine doses. Pregnant women should be vaccinated against rubella. Efficacy: A booster vaccination is not foreseen. Possible risks and side effects: Redness, swelling and pain at the vaccination site, fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, joint inflammation
Tetanus (tetanus): Can affect nerve cells, lead to muscle spasms and, in the worst case, be fatal. Who and when: Combination vaccination from eleven months in two vaccine doses. Efficacy: adults need a booster against tetanus every ten years. Possible risks and side effects: Fever, chills, fatigue, headache, allergic reactions to the skin or respiratory tract
Chickenpox (varicella): Lead to very contagious, itchy blisters on the skin. Who and when: Basic immunization against chickenpox in childhood is given in two partial vaccinations: The first vaccination is recommended at 11 to 14 months of age, the second at 15 to 23 months of age. Efficacy: booster vaccinations are not provided. Adults are also vaccinated twice if needed to protect against chickenpox. Possible risks and side effects: Fever, chills, fatigue, headache, allergic reactions
Rotavirus: produce dangerous diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Who and when: Babies 6 weeks of age and older in two to three doses of vaccine. Efficacy: A booster in adulthood is not foreseen. Possible risks and side effects: Irritability, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever
For girls and adults, respectively:
Influenza: can be life-threatening in older people or people with weakened immune systems. Who and when: Chronically ill persons, pregnant women, persons 60 years of age and older, and people at increased risk of infection (for example, medical personnel) should be vaccinated annually with the current vaccine. Efficacy: Since the viruses of the real flu are quick-change artists, the influenza vaccine must be adapted each year anew. Possible risks and side effects: Redness or pain at the injection site, increased temperature, muscle pain, mild discomfort
HPV (human papillomavirus): can cause cervical cancer. Who and when: : Girls between 12-17 years need 3 vaccination doses. Effectiveness: The effectiveness of the vaccination depends on whether a girl already has an HPV infection. Less effective in girls who have already had sexual intercourse. It is currently unclear whether the vaccine protection is permanent or whether a booster shot will be needed at some point in time. Vaccination for adults 60 years and older. If necessary for people with weakened immune systems. Ticks transmit. Can lead to meningitis. Who and when: Recommended for everyone who lives in or travels to TBE risk areas. Effectiveness: usually three vaccinations are needed to achieve full vaccine protection. A booster vaccination should be given every 3 years. Possible risks and side effects: Temperature increase, headache, faintness, malaise or gastrointestinal discomfort, numbness and tingling
Hepatitis A: Leads to jaundice. Who and when: In sexual behavior with a high risk of infection and for certain risk groups (z. B. Frequent handling of blood components, employees in welfare facilities, etc.), travelers to corresponding risk areas. Efficacy: The first hepatitis A vaccination should be given about 14 days before travel, although vaccination is still possible shortly before travel. For long-term protection, the vaccination must be administered to adults. Children need to be boostered after 6 to 12 months; vaccine protection then usually lasts 30 years. Possible risks and side effects: Local mild side effects are possible, otherwise the vaccine is almost perfectly tolerated.
Which vaccinations must be paid for by those with statutory health insurance?
As a rule, people with statutory health insurance have to pay for their own travel vaccinations. Those who travel abroad for reasons other than work (e.g.B. vacation), must have vaccinations z. B. against cholera, hepatitis A and B or typhoid fever pay for it yourself. Public health insurers are not required to cover the costs.
Vaccinations as prophylaxis for travel abroad
Many dangerous diseases lurk in the very places that are considered dream destinations. Those who want to protect themselves should prepare in good time. The German Foreign Office has compiled a list for vaccinations before a trip.
Vaccinations for Thailand: Holidaymakers who are in good health should be vaccinated against hepatitis A, measles and tetanus. Risk groups should also be vaccinated against hepatitis B, typhoid, Japanese encephalitis, pneumococcus and rabies.
vaccinations for South Africa: No vaccination is required for direct flights from Europe. However, a yellow fever vaccination and protection against malaria is advisable.
Vaccinations for Bali: If you are planning a longer stay or belong to a risk group, get vaccinated against hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, rabies and typhoid.
Immunizations for India: No vaccinations are required for a direct flight from Europe. However, recommendations are made for hepatitis A and B, typhoid and rabies, Zika virus, malaria and dengue fever
Vaccinations for Vietnam: Due to the relatively low standard of hygiene, it is advisable to extend the vaccination protection. Protect yourself against hepatitis A and B, rabies, typhoid, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.
Vaccinations for Australia: There are no special recommendations for Australia. One should have the standard vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis.
Vaccinations – What does DFV cover?
The supplementary outpatient health insurance DFV-AmbulantSchutz covers, independently of the vaccination recommendations of the STIKO, vaccinations against rabies, hepatitis and FSME as well as vaccinations as prophylaxis for trips abroad such as z.B. Malaria. The cost coverage goes beyond the benefits of the getzliche Krankenkasse and offers comprehensive preventive services, extended vaccination protection and financial support for serious illnesses.
100 % reimbursement for
– Preventive medical checkups – Vaccinations – Statutory co-payments – Emergency financial assistance in the event of severe illness
Are vaccinations superfluous nowadays?
No, because the diseases they protect against would return again and again. Despite our highly technical society with good nutrition, good hygiene and modern medicine, we are not protected from infections,. It is still recommended to vaccinate children against infectious diseases!
TBE stands for early summer meningoencephalitis and refers to a virus-related inflammation of the brain and meninges. Here you can learn everything about the disease and protection against ticks.