Vaccinations – Important information about preventive careIt is also a highly discussed topic this year: The compulsory vaccination. For years, German children have been demanding-. Adolescent doctors a duty to vaccinate. Especially the high number of children who contracted measles last year shows that the voluntary nature of vaccination has failed, he said. However, opponents of vaccination – including doctors – say the risk of side effects from vaccination is too high. In addition, an obligation to vaccinate interferes with personal rights. But which pre-. Disadvantages of vaccination? How does vaccination work?? And what to consider when deciding to vaccinate?
Vaccination – pro and contra
As early as six weeks after birth, many parents are confronted with the ie of vaccinations. Because at this point, according to doctors, the first vaccination for newborns would be due. For parents, the controversial question now arises: vaccination yes or no? This can lead to disagreement among acquaintances or family members. In any case, parents should inform themselves about the pros and cons of vaccinations before making a decision. We provide an initial overview of the pros and cons of vaccinations:
Side effects after vaccination
They occur in every thirtieth vaccination: so-called vaccination reactions. Because the vaccine stresses the immune system, it can react irritably to the vaccination. Redness, swelling or the formation of lumps at the injection site are typical reactions to the vaccination. In addition, general symptoms such as fever or aching limbs can occur. In the worst case even febrile convulsions occur. Vaccination triggers disease
A vaccination should actually protect against a disease. However, small amounts of attenuated pathogens have to be injected for this purpose. If a patient's immune system is weakened and no antibodies can be formed against the pathogen, the vaccine disease can break out. As a rule, the "vaccination disease" is relatively mild, yet patients have complaints against which they actually wanted to protect themselves. Permanent damage caused by vaccination
Vaccinations rarely have severe side effects. Nevertheless, in the worst case, vaccination can lead to permanent damage and disability. Seizures, allergies or nervous diseases can occur as well as autoimmune diseases (e.g., diabetes).B. multiple sclerosis or diabetes). Missing numbers
The number of unreported cases of illnesses that can be traced back to a vaccination is probably higher than thought. Since 2001, doctors have been required to report cases of serious complications resulting from vaccination to the public health department. Nevertheless, critics complain that the officially listed numbers are too low. A doctor cannot always directly attribute a patient's symptoms to a vaccination, they say. Accordingly, such cases would not be included in the statistics. Few scientific studies
According to critics, too little research has been done on the complications of vaccination. Although there would be research on the substances themselves, their negative effect on the body is not recorded. Long-term studies are not necessary and also cost a lot of money, which is why most pharmaceutical companies do not do them.
Protection against diseases
If the vaccination is normal, vaccinated people are usually protected from dangerous diseases for a certain period of time. Because pathogens such as tetanus and measles are also widespread here in Germany. Vaccination protects against the serious consequences of an illness and even prevents death. Long-forgotten diseases
Many diseases that are vaccinated against are very rare. Nevertheless, the pathogens of the epidemics are not finally defeated. Polio or diphtheria can only be eradicated if the majority of the population is vaccinated. Risks due to globalization
Also pathogens, which come from other countries with immigrants to Germany, are dangerous for the local population then. Unvaccinated tourists or travelers returning to Germany can bring pathogens from other countries with them. Early vaccination can prevent an epidemic from breaking out in Germany. Precaution for the economy
The costs for a vaccination are manageable. Lengthy treatment of patients affected by a vaccine-preventable disease is a financial burden for both the patient and the health insurers. In addition, due to the risk of long-term damage, the financial cost is not foreseeable. Social responsibility
Vaccination also includes a social responsibility. Because unvaccinated children can infect both adults and other unvaccinated children in the event of an illness. In addition, there are diseases such as rubella, which are harmless for children but very dangerous for pregnant women. Vaccinating children would also reduce the risk of infection for pregnant women.
How do vaccines work in the body?
A vaccination works according to a rather simple principle, which makes use of the structure of the pathogens to be combated. Each pathogen has a certain structure. You can imagine this structure as a piece of a puzzle. In order to "neutralize" the pathogen, it is only necessary to create the appropriate antibody that fits exactly to this piece of the puzzle. This pathogen-antibody structure is also known as the lock-and-key principle.
During an infection with a certain pathogen, the body now forms the appropriate antibodies. And this until each pathogen is equipped with a suitable antibody and thus becomes ineffective. The disease was thus defeated. Once the body has fought such a battle against certain pathogens, the associated antibodies are "stored" in the body. Should the same pathogen attack the body again, it can immediately fall back on the stored antibodies and reproduce them more quickly. In this way, the pathogens usually do not stand a chance.
Vaccination makes use of precisely this "memory" of the body. With the vaccination pathogens are injected into the patient in weakened form. The body reacts. Produces antibodies. Since the vaccine pathogen is not as strong as the actual pathogen, the body produces and stores antibodies, but the disease does not break out. If the vaccinated person now comes into contact with the pathogen again, he or she already has stored antibodies that can fight the disease immediately.
Which vaccinations are recommended and when?
Most vaccinations take place in childhood and adolescence. However, most parents are often at a loss as to when which vaccination actually has to take place. We give you a first overview at which age children should receive which vaccination:
– Tetanus – diphtheria – whooping cough – Hib – polio – pneumococcus – rotavirus – meningo – coccus C – measles – mumps – rubella – chickenpox
– Tetanus – Diphtheria – Pertussis – Polio
Booster every 10 years:
– Tetanus – Diphtheria – Pertussis
Basic immunization every year:
The STIKO (Standing Commission on Vaccination), part of the Robert Koch Institute, is responsible for the official vaccination recommendations in Germany. The institute develops new and adjusted recommendations on vaccinations every year based on medical findings. In addition, the STIKO publishes an annual vaccination calendar that indicates when which vaccinations should be given to children, adolescents and adults.
If you have questions about the exact vaccination procedures and repeat vaccinations, you will find a lot of further information on the website of the -Robert-Koch-Institute.
Build up vaccination protection in children and refresh it regularly
As a rule, children should receive a series of vaccinations starting from infancy. Of particular concern to parents is that some vaccinations need to be given more than once and refreshed in early adolescence. It is therefore important that the child's body receives all vaccinations, otherwise it will not be protected against the pathogens.
If you missed a vaccination for basic immunization or a booster, be sure to have it done. Talk to your doctor about how to establish reliable vaccination protection or whether the vaccination series n needs to be restarted.