What is MRSA? The abbreviation "MRSA" stands for the designation
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is a bacterium that is resistant to the active substance methicillin. This agent is used in the antibiotics commonly used today. As a rule, the MRSA bacteria are also resistant to the active substance oxacillin. Some MRSA pathogens are even multidrug resistant, d.h. Antibiotic agents. Can therefore not be killed by these.
In plain language, this means for those affected that diseases caused by MRSA pathogens can be fought only with difficulty with antibiotics.
Where do MRSA infections occur?
MRSA infections occur primarily in hospitals and doctors' offices, as well as in nursing and rehabilitation facilities.
The incidence of MRSA infections in hospitals has been steadily decreasing for several years, but still in 2014, in about one in 10. Clinic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcs aureus isolates detected. For healthy people with a strong immune system, the MRSA pathogens are initially harmless. Whereas around 20% of the population even have the MRSA germs permanently on their skin or. on the mucous membranes, about 60% of the population is at least temporarily colonized by the MRSA germs, d.h. the germs reside on the skin.
In people who are ill and/or have a weak immune system, on the other hand, there is a risk that the Risk of infection . The dangerous thing about the MRSA pathogens is their Resistance to common antibiotics . Since antibiotics cannot prevent the germs from multiplying, illnesses caused by MRSA pathogens can become very dangerous for the people affected.
clinical picture of MRSA
infectious manifestations of MRSA pathogens:
– purulent, superficial complaints such as.B. Boils, abscesses and carbuncles on the face, neck and throat – inflammation of the periosteum or parotid gland – pneumonia or life-threatening blood poisoning – extensive detachment of the skin, soft tie infections or, in the worst case, multi-organ failure
The infections that can be caused by MRSA pathogens are versatile. On the one hand, an infection can lead to purulent, superficial complaints, including boils, abscesses and carbuncles on the face, neck and throat. In addition, an MRSA infection can lead to inflammation of the periosteum. The parotid gland, as well as pneumonia or life-threatening blood poisoning.
Furthermore, an MRSA infection can lead to extensive skin detachment, soft tie infections or even multiple organ failure. The The incubation period is about 4 to 10 days , d.h. the first symptoms appear around 4 to 10 days after infection.
Disinfection: Prevent MRSA infections
As these infections can be fatal, especially for people with a weakened immune system, infection prevention with the right Infection Prevention with the Right Disinfectants against MRSA extremely important. The pathogens are transmitted both via the hands. Contaminated surfaces as also transmitted via the respiratory tract. Accordingly, appropriate MRSA disinfection is required on both hands and surfaces.
Infection prevention against MRSA
The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) regularly publishes recommendations that serve as a basis for infection protection. From this appropriate hygiene measures can be taken. The KRINKO recommends Individual medical risk analysis in every facility. In addition, according to the commission, basic hygiene measures should be taken, as well as MRSA-specific measures if necessary (z.B. screening, sanitation).
Basic hygiene includes regular hand and surface disinfection.
1. Basic hygiene measures such as:
– regular hand disinfection before and after each patient contact, after contact with possibly infectious objects and before aseptic activities – regular surface disinfection of contaminated objects and surfaces – additional wearing of disposable gloves and a mouthguard if the probability of coming into contact with MRSA pathogens is high
2. other MRSA-specific measures, such as z.B. screening or a sanitation
Hands should be thoroughly disinfected before and after each patient contact, after touching possibly infectious objects and before aseptic activities. A alcohol-based hand disinfection is just as effective against MRSA as against other non-antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well.
How long you have to let the respective disinfection against MRSA take effect, you can find in the technical data sheets, which you can find in the download area of the respective product description. In addition to the appropriate exposure time, hand disinfection against MRSA must ensure that sufficient disinfectant is used and that the entire hand is wetted. The thumbs and the spaces between the fingers are often neglected during disinfection. This must also be avoided during disinfection against MRSA. In order to be able to kill the MRSA pathogens present, the following are therefore required no special MRSA disinfectants necessary. You can simply alcohol-based hand disinfectants fall back. These disinfectants are effective against MRSA germs as well as bacteria that are not antibiotic-resistant.
In the context of hand disinfection against MRSA, we recommend MyClean HB hand disinfection as well as Schulke desderman pure disinfection, which is available both as a liquid disinfectant and as a disinfectant gel. All three products are effective against MRSA germs. Points at the same time with a very good skin compatibility.
It is equally important to carry out the appropriate surface disinfection against MRSA. The MRSA pathogen can be transmitted not only via the hands, but also via contaminated objects and surfaces. In the data sheets of the respective surface disinfection against MRSA, you will also find information on how long the respective disinfectant must act in order to be successfully effective against MRSA.
Also in the context of surface disinfection you need no special MRSA disinfectant is needed . The use of a Alcohol-based surface disinfection is enough to kill MRSA germs. To disinfect your surfaces against MRSA, we can recommend the MyClean DS rapid disinfection, the MyClean DS A surface disinfection, the Schulke antifect N liquid disinfectant as well as the Schulke mikrozid AF liquid rapid disinfection.
If it is particularly likely that you will come into contact with the MRSA pathogen, it is also advisable to wear disposable gloves and a mouth guard to prevent contact with MRSA pathogens as much as possible.
MRSA outbreak – What to do?
Recommendations for action in case of MRSA infection in brief:
– Examination of a smear, wound secretions or pus of the sick person in the laboratory – possibility of therapy with various antibiotics – possibility of skin sanitation by removing the affected mucous membranes – clothing, towels and bed linen of the affected person washed and disinfected thermally or chemo-thermally every day after the aforementioned personal hygiene
On the basis of the symptoms, it is usually not recognizable at first glance that an illness has been caused by an MRSA pathogen. Symptoms are the same as for other Staphylococcus aureus infections. The difference is that the pathogen cannot be killed by common antibiotics.
If MRSA infection is suspected, laboratory Swabs of the diseased person examined and the suspicion confirmed or refuted. The swabs can come from the throat, the nasal vestibule, the armpits or the groin of the person with the disease. In addition, wound secretions can. pus can be examined in the laboratory. With various procedures can be determined then, which germ is responsible for the illness and against which antibiotics the respective germ is resistant.
This can be followed by therapy with various antibiotics. Agents that may also be effective against MRSA pathogens include linezolid, tigecycline, cephalosporins and daptomycin.
If the affected person continues to carry MRSA carriers on their skin after the infection has cleared, there is a risk that they will become reinfected in the future if their immune system is weakened. Therefore, it is necessary to sanitize the people who carry the MRSA germs on their skin. These persons are also called MRSA carriers.
A Sanitation means that the MRSA germs are removed from the skin as well as from the mucous membranes of the affected person.
If the MRSA germs were found in the nasal vestibule of the affected person, a nasal MRSA colonization is present. In these cases, the number of MRSA bacteria can be reduced by the use of Mupirocin nasal ointment are reduced. For this purpose, the ointment must be applied 3 times a day in both nasal cavities for 5 days. If, on the other hand, the MRSA germs have settled on a person's skin, the affected person must wash his or her body as well as hair daily for five days with appropriate Decontamination preparations which have been proven to be effective against MRSA.
Since the MRSA bacteria are also transferred from the skin to the objects in the affected person's environment, the affected person's clothing, towels as well as bed linen must also be cleaned daily after the aforementioned personal hygiene be washed and disinfected thermally or chemo-thermally . Similarly, those items with which the affected person has come into contact must be regularly disinfected against MRSA. These include such items as jewelry, eyeglasses and hearing aids. Care utensils such as the patient's toothbrush or razor must also be disinfected or replaced for MRSA. In addition, these items must be kept in the patient's room. To avoid spreading MRSA bacteria, they must not come into contact with people other than the nursing staff in charge and the patient in question themselves.
If your skin is colonized by MRSA bacteria, you should also avoid using lipsticks, roll-on deodorants or similar products, otherwise the bacteria will be picked up by those products and transferred back to your skin each time you use them. For ease of reading, we use the following when referring to people. Person-related nouns in some places the masculine form. We advocate equal treatment for all genders. Use the shortened form of language solely for editorial reasons.